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1975 3 South Lebanon was bombarded 6 The army launched an attack in Tripoli 7 Teachers went on strike 11 Patriarch Meouchi died 23 Dalida sang in Lebanon, at the Picadilly theatre. It was a triumph. 27 After stormy debates and demonstrations, most schools reopened their doors. 30 15,000 persons demonstrated in Beirut to express their solidarity with South Lebanon, which had been regularly bombed by Israel. 3 After a debate that lasted 15 days, the conclave chose unanimously a neutralist candidate. Mgr Antonios Khoreiche was the new Patriarch of Antioch and the Middle East. 5 The Arab Defense Committee gathered in Cairo, voted 90 million dollars for the defense of Lebanon. 7 Major events were reported in the town of Saida. 19 Imam Moussa Sadr remained the spiritual leader of the Shiite community until he was 65 years old. 13 A serious incident opposed the Phalange (Kataeb) Party to the Resistance in Ain El Remmaneh causing 31 deaths. 15 A cease-fire was reached 19 A huge fire in the Port destroyed 10,000 m2 of warehouses. An investigation was opened to determine whether it was arson or not. 16 The Solh Cabinet resigned due to pressures against its members. 20 Five people were killed and 24 were wounded in Dekwaneh 23 Following the resignation of the Government of Rachid El Solh, Sleiman Frangieh, President of the Republic, put together a military government. 26 The military Cabinet resigned 1 Lebanon had a new Government 7 New coins equivalent to one Lebanese pound were issued 7 An Israeli aggression against Rachidieh and Bourghoulieh camps in South Lebanon killed 12 persons and wounded 20 others. A Lebanese complaint was lodged at the United Nations. 5 Israel launched air, land and sea attacks against Tyr, killing 18 persons and injuring 29. 26 Kheir Traboulsi, the Lebanese weightlifter, vice-champion at the Munich Olympic Games, won 3 gold medals at the 7th Mediterranean games in Alger. 29 After mortar and rocket exchanges in the streets of Zahleh made several victims, a partial curfew was imposed on the town. 31 Despite the latest events, Demis Roussos sang in Beirut and put some balm on the hearts of the Lebanese people. 7 Tripoli was in fire and blood 10 General Said, 52 years old, replaced General Ghanem at the head of the army. 19 Beirut was the theater of numerous troubles - street fights, plastic bomb attacks, and fires were reported. The downtown, the heart of the old Beirut, was in fire too, and the heart of the Lebanese full of fear. At night, a cease-fire was announced. 21 Bread, flour, gas, and meat became scarce in Beirut while snipers spread terror. 30 A Tupolev 154 belonging to the Hungarian company Malev exploded in the air at 10 kilometers from Beirut, killing 60 persons, 34 of which were Lebanese. 2 Rachid Karameh presided the meeting of the Ç National Committee for dialog È at the Serail. The committee decided that all armed elements will have to back up from their positions before the next day and will be replaced by Interior Security Forces. 4 Interior Security Forces held in check a land attack against the Beirut International Airport where 4 armed men tried to kidnap an airplane in order to go to Cairo. 21 Kamal El Assad was reelected president of the Chamber by 47 votes against one. At the same time, Beirut was still under fire and the list of victims, whether kidnapped, executed, or shot by snipers or mortar shells, kept growing. 25 50 000 Lebanese demonstrated against violence in Lebanon, in response to the call launched by Cherif Akhaoui, the radio journalist famous for his security bulletins. 27 The Murr tower was occupied by the Mourabitun, and the Holliday Inn-Phoenicia region was held by the Phalange Party. 2 Chuchu, the famous actor died from a hart attack. His real name was Hassan Alaeddine, the friend of younger and older kids was the most popular comedian on stage and on TV. 10 An emissary of Pope Paul VI arrived to Beirut holding a papal message 16 President Sleiman Frangieh and Prime Minister Rachid Karameh studied the political reform and the secularization of public service. 26 Kurt Waldheim, the Secretary General of the United Nations, visited Lebanon for a few hours. He declared that the Lebanese themselves held the solution to the Lebanese crisis. 1 Israelis attacked villages in the South 6 The assassination of four young Phalangists on the Fanar road provoked horrible killings in the streets of Beirut. 15 After a week of dreadful combats, the first phases of the 18th cease-fire agreement were executed with the evacuation of the towers and big hotels in the capital. 22 Thousands of armed elements attempted to invade Zahleh
1976 1 The explosion of the MEA Boeing in Saudi Arabia killed 82 persons, 40 of which were Lebanese. 5 After a delay of three months, the American University of Beirut inaugurated its academic year 1975-1976. 7 The Palestinian camps of Tell El Zaatar and Jisr El Bacha being under a blockade, 1200 armed elements attacked the region of Horsh Tabet. Pitched battles opposed Phalangist and Fedayin activists. 16 For the first time since the beginning of the war, the Lebanese aviation intervened against Palestinian and progressive activists settlements in the Khaldeh and Aramoun regions. Thirty women and children were killed at the entry of Damour. 21 Sabri Hamadeh died. 22 While the Palestine Liberation Army controlled the Akkar and the Bekaa with the exception of Zahleh, a cease-fire was concluded under the aegis of Syria. 30 While the normalization process continued, the Superior Military Committee decided to dispatch the Lebanese Army to Damour, Mkalles, and Dbayeh, as well as to the road leading to the Beirut International Airport. 30 Lieutenant Ahmed Khatib left the Hasbaya barracks and announced the creation, in the Bekaa, of the Army of Arab Lebanon. 18 Karantina massacre 20 Damour massacre 12 Banks reopened their doors after several months of paralysis 17 A terrible tragedy was reported at the American University of Beirut. A student who was excluded in 1973 shot two deans: Raymond Ghosn and Robert Njeimy. 23 A forty-five years old fanatic locked up 35 persons at the Canadian embassy. This situation lasted 8 hours and immersed Lebanon in a torrid suspense. The hostages were then liberated in a happy ending. 3 The army took in charge the downtown and its men were positioned in the green zone of Beirut. 8 Khatib's men occupied the strategic bolt of Arnoun. 11 After a day marked by the resignation of Rachid Karameh and the aggravation of the war of barracks in Tripoli, a military Coup was executed by Corporal Aziz Ahdab, commanding the place of Beirut. Corporal Ahdab was supported by the Commander of the army, 270 loyalist officers, Syria, and the Palestine Liberation Army. He claimed the resignation of Sleiman Frangieh, but the President refused to give up and locked himself in Baabda. 15 Lieutenant Ahmed Khatib, chief of the ' Army of Arab Lebanon ', rejoined Ahdab's reformist movement. Barracks fell in the hands of protesters. 68 deputies signed a petition claiming the departure of Sleiman Frangieh who refused to leave his post, despite all the pressures against him. 21 The ' Holiday Inn ' occupied by the Phalange Party fell in the hands of the Mourabitun and their allies. 23 The ' Beirut Battle ' continued amid shelling. 2 A ten-day truce had bee decided, in order to elect a new President of the Republic after the expected departure of Sleiman Frangieh. 15 Despite the extension of the truce, several fronts were set ablaze, including those in Beirut. 1 Despite the Damascus agreement, fights continued violently. The elections were postponed to May 8, the two candidates being Elias Sarkis and Raymond Eddeh. 4 Air France suspended its flights. It was the last foreign airline that was still flying to Lebanon. 8 Elias Sarkis, the 52 years old Central Bank Governor, was elected President of the Republic at the second ballot by a majority of 66 votes out of 69 attending deputies. The election took place in a tense atmosphere at the villa Esseily-Hussein Mansour, which was turned into a temporary Parliament around which mortar shells were falling. Lebanese leftist parties were opposed to the elections. 16 The Lebanese press was in mourning. A sniper's bullet killed Edouard Saab, the chief editor of L'Orient-Le-Jour. 25 Raymond Eddeh fell into an ambush between Nahr Ibrahim and Antelias. The Amid's car was riddled with over a hundred projectiles but he got away with only an injured leg. 27 Linda Joumblatt, Kamal Joumblatt's 55 years old sister, was cowardly assassinated in her home in Beirut. A group of armed men broke into her apartment and opened fire on her. She was killed while her daughters Nouha, 28 years old, and Samar, 18 years old were injured. 30 An avalanche of missiles and shells hit Beirut while combats continued on all fronts. The bombings reached the airport, imposing the closure of runways to air traffic at night. 1 Syrian troops intervened in the Akkar region to raise the siege imposed on Kobeyate by officer Maamari from the 'Army of Arab Lebanon.' The Syrian contingent counted approximately 2000 men. 600 other soldiers entered the Bekaa region with over 200 tanks. 2 The residents of Beirut and its surroundings were living in the dark. The last cable supplying the capital with power had been broken. Daily life was very difficult. 7 Violent combats opposed pro-Syrian formations to Palestinian Progressive militiamen in several districts of Beirut. Syrian troops entered the capital where most Palestinian Progressive forces were concentrated. 15 The Lebanese Front approved the application of the solutions of the sub-summit, concerning the dispatch, to Lebanon, of a peace force including Libyan, Algerian, Syrian, Sudanese, Saudi, and Palestinian contingents. 16 The US ambassador in Lebanon, Francis Meloy, the US economic advisor, Robert Waring, and the driver of the US embassy were assassinated after being kidnapped. They were about to cross the borderline between West and East Beirut. 18 Palestinian Progressive forces launched attacks against the Syrian forces positioned in Ain Zhalta and Ain Dara in order to stop their advance in the Chouf. 18 President Gerald Ford ordered the US embassy in Beirut to evacuate urgently all US nationals in Lebanon who would like to return home. 21 The first contingent of the Arab Peace Force arrived to Beirut. 27 The Beirut International Airport was heavily bombed. An MEA Boeing 707 caught fire on the runway. The airplane's pilot died in the accident. 27 The Phalange Party, the NLP, and the Guardians of the Cedar launched the 'Camps Battle'. 1 While Palestinian camps were under attack and all fronts were on fire, Beirut was short of water, electricity, and medications. The situation was intolerable. 11 The National Union Front was created. Its founding members were Saeb Salam , Raymond Eddeh , Mikhael Daher , Rachid El Solh , Hassan Rifai , Albert Mansour, and Ali El Khalil 13 William Hawi, commnander of the Kataeb military forces was shot and killed by a sniper whilst he was inspecting his forces on the edge of the Tel el Zaatar camp. 8 The leftists opened new fronts in the port and business districts, hoping to draw the rightists away from Tel El Zaatar, but the assaults were quickly repulsed by local defenders. 5 The PLO and their allies launched a massive offensive against the Kura and the Christian town of Chekka north of Beirut. 12 Tell El Zaatar assault and massacre 17 The Upper-Metn battle started. Over 600 shells fell on Faraya-Oyoune El Simane while Palestinians and Progressive forces continued their insane bombing of the capital. 4 Bleeding continued in the ports. Massive emigration went on in the same intensity. Hundreds of families flew every day by sea escaping from hell. 15 One week before the expiry of his mandate, President Frangieh carried out a spectacular government reshuffling. Rachid Karameh was appointed Prime Minister, Minister of Agriculture, Tourism, Housing, and Cooperatives; Camille Chamoun vice-Prime Minister, Minister of Interior, Foreign Affairs, and National Defense; Addel Osseirane Minister of Justice, National Education, and Plan; Magid Arslane Minister of Public Works, Transportation, Hydraulic and Electric Resources, and Health; Ghassan Tueini Minister of Labor and Social Affairs, Information, Industry and Oil; and Georges Skaff Minister of Finance, Economy and Trade, and Posts and Telecommunications. 22 Bechir Gemayel announced the creation of an army to defend Lebanon. 23 Elias Sarkis, sixth President of the Republic, took the constitutional oath at the Park Hotel in Chtaura, in presence of 67 deputies. 25 Prime Minister, Rachid Karameh, presented to the President, the resignation of his government. 28 The Syrian forces and the Lebanese Forces launched an attack against the positions of the Palestinian Progressive forces in the mountain. This far-reaching attack aimed at dislodging the Common Forces from the crests they occupied in Sannine, Zaarour, Aintoura and Mtein. This assault was accompanied by an intensive bombing of Aley, the main Palestinian Progressive base in the mountain. 1 After they occupied the positions of the Palestinian Progressive forces in the Upper-Metn, the Lebanese Forces launched a new far-reaching attack against Aley, the main bastion of these forces. This new assault was be repelled on both axes, that of Bdedoun north-east of Aley, and that of Kahaleh north of the town. 3 The Lebanese leaders went to Paris for consultations. Kamal Joumblatt and Pierre Gemayel believed that France should help find a solution to the Lebanese crisis. 8 The Arab League's representative in Lebanon, Hassam Sabri Kholi, announced that the four-party commission (Syria, Lebanon, PLO, Arab League) will meet starting October 9 in Chtaura to study the measures to be taken to end the combats in Lebanon and execute the Lebanese-Palestinian Cairo agreement. 17 A restricted summit was held in Ryad. 22 The effective cease-fire was a partial success. 9 President Elias Sarkis appointed Colonel Ahmad Hajj commander of the Arab Strike Force. 9 Phase 1of the peace plan assigned to the Arab Strike Force takes effect tonight. 11 For the second time in 6 months, the leader of the National Bloc, Raymond Eddeh, escaped from a killing attempt in front of his home. 15 Phase 2 of the peace plan started. 16 According to Ghassan Tueni, who was in Geneva asking for help from international organizations, 'In 18 months, the Lebanese war killed 60,000 persons, injured 200 000 others, and made 1.7 million homeless persons.' 19 After a 5-month break, the Airport was reopened again to air traffic. 20 The third phase of the peace plan started. 250 tanks and 11 battalions entered Zghorta, Ehden, Tripoli and the Koura. In South Lebanon, the 'Green Helmets' took position in Saïda, and Zahrani. The Arab Dissuasion Force was not able to enter Tyr, Nabatyeh, Marjeyoun, and Masnaa because of the Israeli opposition to any Arab military presence beyond its famous 'red line'. 21 The President addressed a message to the Nation. 4 A violent explosion hit the district of Mousseytbeh, where a bomb exploded next to Kamal Joumblatt's house, killing 4 persons and seriously injuring 20 others. 9 President Sarkis asked Salim El Hoss to form the Government.
1977 3 A violent explosion shook the district of Accoui in Achrafieh causing 26 dead and 70 injured. Shattered glass fell all over the streets hitting several vehicles. The death toll rose to 50 by the next morning. 6 A particularly vigorous winter hit Lebanon. It snowed in Beirut, which was quite unusual. Temperature fell to 0 degree. 7 Regular Palestinian forces will have to leave Lebanon before January 13', announced a press release issued by the presidency of the Republic. 12 The collection of heavy and light arms continued while the government was helping the victims of the war and trying to boost the economy. 17 After 10 months of disruption, banks reopened officially without any problems. 23 In Broumana and in presence of 25 delegates, the week of the Lebanese Forces was held under the sign of coexistence. 24 The Government created an economic and social orientation body, called the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR). 4 The Government promulgated a decree concerning wartime conflicts between owners and renters. 8 Kurt Waldheim, Secretary General of the United Nations, arrived to Beirut. He declared that the United Nations would substantially help Lebanon and that the future of this country was closely linked the comprehensive solution in the Middle East. 14 The ambassador of the United States returned to Lebanon. 28 A master plan for the souks of the old Beirut was submitted to the Council of Ministers. This project included the creation of a green front, an opening to the sea from the Saint George to Bahri, the construction of a port district around the first basin, the opening of avenues towards the sea, and the reconstruction of the souks. 10 The cost of living had substantially increased in Lebanon. Meat, sugar, cheese, oil and chicken tripled since before 1975. Fares varied from a region to another due to the lack of control. 16 Kamal Joumblatt was assassinated 19 An airplane was hijacked between Turkey and Lebanon. 27 The Arab League decided to renew the mandate of the Arab Strike Force for another six months. 27 A powerful plastic charge, deposited in the elevator of the Minister of Defense, Fouad Boutros, exploded destroying the upper floor of the apartment. 28 The Council of Ministers appointed Colonel Victor Khoury at the head of the army replacing General Hanna Said. 5 The officials were satisfied with the ongoing excavations in the heart of the city where the most damaged sectors were located, for they exhumed valuable Phoenician, Roman and Byzantine vestiges. 11 Colonel Sami Khatib was appointed commander of the Arab Strike Force. 16 The Cairo agreement will be applied progressively. The worried Lebanese have been waiting for a long time for this agreement to be implemented. 23 The integrity of Southern Lebanon will be jointly guaranteed by Syria and the Soviet Union . This was the message that President Assad transmitted to President Sarkis, following recent meetings between Assad and Brejnev. He also said that a Lebanese force should insure security in Southern Lebanon. 29 A meeting between the Syrians, the Lebanese, and the Palestinians was held in Baabda. 3 Lebanon received about 110 million Lebanese Pounds from the EEC. 13 An Antonov-12 air freighter belonging to the Polish company LOT crashed in the forest of Aramoun. The airplane that was returning from Warsaw carried a shipment of meat and seven crewmembers who perished in the accident. 26 The mandate of the Arab four-party committee in charge of the execution of the Palestinian-Lebanese Cairo agreement had expired, while the agreement had not been executed yet. 4 The election of Miss Lebanon was organized at the Santa Teresa in Maameltein. 15 Charles Aznavour was the first star to come to Lebanon during the war. He sang in Byblos in front of a Lebanese audience trying to forget the nightmare of the last two years. 19 After a 19-month interruption, horse races resumed in Beirut hippodrome where 10,000 turfists gathered. 30 On the last day of its full-powers, the Council of Ministers published a series of decree-laws. The most important ones stipulated the revision of certain laws relative to the Lebanese University, the amendment of some press censorship laws, and the adoption of the mandatory car insurance. 8 An armed group took control of a Boeing connecting Beirut to Kuwait. 13 Dalida sang in Byblos and charmed the Lebanese. 21 The ' technical Palestinian-Syrian-Lebanese committee ' met in Chtaura, trying to put an end to the hostilities in South Lebanon and find a settlement for the Palestinian armed presence in the country, as suggested by the Cairo agreement. This meeting was the first between Lebanese, Syrians, and Palestinians since fights stopped last November. It resulted from the recent meetings between leaders of these three countries. 24 340 tourists made a brief stopover in Beirut. The Sol Phryne, a boat achieving a Mediterranean cruise, made a stopover in Beirut and its 340 passengers visited the capital for a few hours. 25 An agreement was signed in Chtaura. 30 The Arab Strike Force deployed around the camps in Beirut, Tripoli, Saida and in the Bekaa region. 1 18 delegations representing several countries around the world attended the opening session of the emigrants sixth meeting organized at the hotel Al-Bustan. 2 The Saint-Georges Yacht Motor Club organized a water-ski competition, in presence of many foreigners; it was a come back of the Lebanon of yesterday. 3 The American Secretary of State, Cyrus Vans arrived to Beirut as part of a Middle East tour. He was welcomed in Baabda by President Sarkis. The meetings covered essentially the situation in the south and the American guarantees regarding an eventual Israeli military action in that region. Lebanese officials discussed with Vance the possibility of dispatching United Nations contingents to Southern Lebanon. 9 The Spanish singer Julio Iglesias charmed the Lebanese beauties with his beautiful voice. 27 Although the collection of heavy arms was achieved, the Lebanese Front issued a press release, following the Ehden conference, emphasizing ' the necessity of spreading out Palestinians residing in Lebanon over the countries belonging to the Arab League.' 29 The Saint-Georges Yacht Motor Club organized an international water-polo tournament. 8 The Secretary General of the United Nations, Kurt Waldheim called upon all conflicting parties in Southern Lebanon urging them to fully participate in the efforts aiming at reaching a cease-fire in the region. 16 15 cholera cases were reported in Lebanon. 20 While bombardments and fights were taking place along the border since September 16, Radio Israel announced that Israel had sent a warning to Syria, indicating that no Syrian troop movement will be tolerated in Southern Lebanon. 25 Following efforts deployed by the American government in Tel Aviv, a cease-fire came into effect in Southern Lebanon. During the past few days, fights reached their maximum intensity especially in the Khyam region. 28 Demis Roussos was back to Lebanon to give a concert. 'I am glad to be in Lebanon especially after what happened', he declared. 2 President Chamoun declared to 3200 new NLP members: 'We should not be misled by a fake peace'. 3 After having pointed out the unusual increase of the number of refugees on the Lebanese territory, Fouad Boutros, Minister of Foreign Affairs, declared to the United Nations: 'Lebanon pays for the mistakes committed by the others.' 9 Charbel Makhlouf was proclaimed Saint of the Catholic Church during a moving religious ceremony that Pope Paul VI presided in the Saint Paul Basilica in the Vatican. Thousands of people attended the ceremony, including some miraculous Lebanese. It was a touching moment for the whole Christian community in Lebanon. The Lebanese Maronite delegation carried gifts to the Saint: markouk bred, wine, fruits from the Kesrouan, a partridge and a cedar. The hermit of Annaya became the first Orient Saint canonized by Rome. 11 The Bishop Elia Sleeby, the Greek-orthodox Metropolite of Beirut died at the age of 95. 17 Strong effervescence reigned in Nabaa, as a result of rumors over an apparition of Saint Charbel followed by miraculous recoveries. Thousands of sick people hurried to the scene. 19 A sensational hold up took place in the Kantari sector. Gangsters attacked a customs wagon and seized a 2 810 000 LP booty. 19 In order to deal with the economic recession caused by the two-year crisis and the unbearable increase of the cost of living, the government decided to help both employers and salaried. He raised the minimum wage to 415 LP and granted facilities to the employers. 5 An odious murder was committed against Abdel-Hamid Ahdab. He was a strong defender of an inter-Lebanese dialogue in favor of an absolute allegiance to the country. The powerful explosion placed in Ahdab's residence killed his daughter and seriously injured him and his spouse. This criminal act was perpetrated against democracy, freedom of speech and reconciliation between the Lebanese. 9 Israel launched an assault in the South. An air and sea Israeli bombing of Lebanese towns and Palestinian camps claimed the lives of 110 civilians. The town of Ezzieh was razed. 14 During the last meeting of the Arab Ministers of Interior and Foreign Affairs that started in Tunis on November 12, Arab Leaders examined the situation in Southern Lebanon. They emphasized the necessity for an immediate and complete execution of the Cairo agreement. Israel informed Lebanon that it would not tolerate any Palestinian presence in the South. 15 The performance of Joe Dassin at the Casino du Liban conquered the Lebanese.
1978 6 The Begin Plan concerning the settlement of Palestinians in Lebanon made some noise. 10 Within 3 weeks, four explosive charges were placed next to Saeb Salam's home. 20 A new armament and US equipment shipment sent to the Lebanese Army and the Internal Security Forces arrived at the Port of Beirut. It included a hundred armored vehicles and cistern trucks. 22 The Lebanese Front adopted a coexistence formula. 24 The Lebanese Front was alarmed : armaments were unloaded in Tyr. 25 The Parliament extended its mandate until the first of June 1980. 26 Feyrouz played Queen of ' Petra ', the play that the Rahbani brothers wrote and presented at the Picadilly Theatre. Assi Rahbani was the Director, Abdel-Hamid Caracalla was in charge of the scenography, Papou Lahoud did the costumes, and Ghazi Kahwaji the decoration. 29 A bomb attack damaged seriously the Tunisian embassy in Beirut, without, however, causing any victim. 1 An explosion injured 18 persons in Bourj. It was caused by a grenade hidden in a parked car. 2 Michel Sardou caused the walls at the Casino du Liban to vibrate. 7 A serious incident occurred in Fayadieh. 25 It is the first night, at the Casino du Liban theater, of the ' Akhwat Loubnan ' show written and interpreted by Nabih Aboulhosn. 27 Diverse shows were scheduled in Lebanon. 'We Belnesba la bokra chou?' by Ziad Rahbani was a triumph at the Orly Theater. 8 The US government agreed on granting Lebanon an agricultural loan of the amount of 8,800,000 dollars. 14 Israel invaded the South, after an operation executed by the Fedayin on March 11 at Tel Aviv. 15 According to a report issued by the Ministry of Finance, the losses in the public sector were estimated at 7.5 billion Lebanese Pounds. 19 The Security council adopted the 425 Resolution which stipulated the expedition of 4,000 blue helmets to confirm the withdrawal of the Israeli forces. They had also to assist the Lebanese government in the restoration of its authority in the region. 22 The first ' Blue Helmets ' arrived to the South. 23 General Gour, from the Israeli army, affirmed that Israeli withdrawal from the South of Lebanon would start within a few days. 27 ' The 'National parliamentary gathering', a Shiite block, was created under the presidency of Kamel El Assaad. 29 The Arab Strike Force's mandate was extended for another 6 months. 30 A little bit of cheerfulness in the midst of despair ! The Boney M gave a flamboyant show to a heartbroken Lebanese audience. 11 Violent fights were reported on the axis Chyah-Ain el Remmaneh. The Arab Strike Force intervened, bombing violently Ain el Remmaneh and establishing a 500-meter wide buffer zone. 19 The Hoss government, formed in December of 1976, resigned. El Hoss himself was soon asked, on April 28, to form the new government. 23 At the Villa Mansour, the committee of the ' Thirteen ', that included leaders from all parliamentary blocks, adopted a blueprint claiming the end of the Palestinian armed action on the entire Lebanese territory. The Parliament unanimously approved the resolution on the 27th of April. 28 A building collapsed on refugees from South Beirut causing tens of victims. 2 A fight opposed the UNIFL and the Palestinians. The French barrack in Tyr was bombed and the commander of the French contingent was seriously injured. 6 Several civil victims were reported during a violent bombardment of Ain el Remmanneh. As usual, there were contradictory versions of the incident. 7 The 'Mikhael Naimy' week was inaugurated under the patronage of the President of the Republic. This event was a Lebanese tribute to the great thinker and writer who stirs up Lebanon's tradition and vocation in the field of thinking. 12 Seiman Frangieh and Rachid Karameh reconciled under the auspices of the Syrian commander of the Arab Strike Force in Northern Lebanon. 24 The PLO committed, in an official press release, to stop all military activities in South Lebanon and facilitate the UNIFL's task, in order to reestablish the Lebanese sovereignty in this region. 31 A Sarkis-Assad summit was held in Lattaquieh. They discussed the Israeli occupation of South Lebanon, the military cooperation between the two countries, and the difficulties encountered in the pacification process in Lebanon. 4 A 19 years old Lebanese pianist, Abdel Rahman El Bacha, won the longest and toughest international contest: the Queen Elisabeth Music Prize. 5 Ghassan Tueini proposed, at the UN General Assembly, an 'international neutrality to protect Lebanon, because this country has no longer any other future besides explosion or invasion'. A UN force would take in charge the protection of the territory, while the army would devote its efforts to internal security and reconstruction. 6 The Lebanese Front stiffened its position. 13 A dramatic event was reported in Zghorta. A chock commando killed Tony Frangieh, deputy and son of the President Sleiman Frangieh, his wife Vera and their daughter Jihane, at their home in Ehden. The murder of Tony Frangieh took place while the conflict between the Phalange Party and the Zghortiotes was at its peak. 17 President Sleiman Frangieh declared that no Phalangist member will stay alive in the North of Lebanon. The vendetta caused the death of tens of persons. Phalangist militiamen were forced to flee towards Batroun then Jbeil. 28 A massacre of a unique atrocity was perpetrated in the North of the Bekaa region. 1 It is a blaze of fire ! Ain El Remmaneh was savagely bombed. 22 persons died and tens were injured. Syrian forces arrested Commander Bechir Gemayel then set him free. 2 Achrafieh was bombed. 130 shells hit the H™tel-Dieu hospital where 20 rooms were destroyed. At the same time, a huge fire ravaged the dock number 6 in the port. 23 Hadeth was savagely bombed. 26 The Israeli Prime Minister Menahem Begin declared : 'Christians in Lebanon are threatened of being annihilated'. 28 US nationals were evacuated and this was worrying for the Lebanese population. 29 The bombing intensified in the Eastern suburbs of Beirut. 31 Lebanese Army units were dispatched to South Lebanon. 10 While the bombardment of Acharafieh continued, the Arab Strike Force evacuated twelve positions in this district. Christian parties requested the evacuation of the Port and the Karantina and that Saudis and Sudanese soldiers replace the Syrian soldiers. 13 A bomb destroyed an eight floor building where the offices of the Palestine Liberation Front were located. The explosion killed 150 persons. 22 Raymond Eddeh called the UN Security Council to hold a meeting. The leader of the National Bloc declared 'My country is like a man that is sinking in a marsh and is being shot. 24 The situation deteriorated suddenly in the North. 28 A Syrian-Israeli war in Lebanon seemed likely to happen, but the US intervened to moderate the two countries. 10 Imam Moussa Sadr, a Shiite leader disappeared while visiting Libya. Libyans asserted that he left Tripoli for Rome. Sadr never arrived to Rome, and the Lebanese were worried. 19 In Lebanon strikes multiplied. 23 After President Sarkis delivered a speech underlining the necessity to maintain the Arab Strike Force and guarantee the forthcoming withdrawal of Syrian forces, about 200 shells hit Achrafieh. The population panicked. 26 President Alfred Naccache was dead from pneumonia. He was 91 years old. He was President of the Republic between 1941 and 1943, under the French mandate. After the independence, he was given several ministerial functions, before he retired from politics. He was born in Beirut in 1887 and studied law at Saint Joseph University. He became advisor for the supreme court of appeal, and then headed the appeal court. In 1941, he became President of the Republic until March 18, 1943. He was titular of several honorific distinctions such as the great cordon of the cedar order. 28 It is the famous ' Black Thursday ' where hundreds of shells hit Achrafieh in a murderous frenzy that did not spare anyone. The Arab Strike Force and the Lebanese Front accused each other of being responsible of this nightmare, while women, children and elderly persons were dying. 1 Artillery duels extended. Achrafieh was turned into hell; more than 100 persons died and 300 were injured in this district of Beirut as a result of bombardments. 3 France took the initiative of a cease-fire in Beirut and suggested the repositioning of the Arab Strike Force, as well as the interposition of a Lebanese Force between the belligerents. 4 The bombardments reached Bikfaya and Beit-Mery while in East Beirut there was a shortage of food and medications. The Security Council called for the urgent ending of the combats. 8 Residents of Achrafieh stepped out of their shelters only to realize the magnitude of the damages. Despite the respect of the cease-fire agreed upon by Presidents Elias Sarkis and Hafez Assad, the region was still under blockade. 1 At Kornet Chehwane, a detachment of the army's intervention squad encircled the residence of Captain Sami Achkar accused of creating a dissident organization within the army. The officer was killed in the assault. The next day, Fouad Boutros, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defense, was attacked in Achrafieh and his bodyguards were kidnapped. 4 While the situation improved on the ground, Damascus liberated Ahmed Khatib, previously chief of the Army of Arab Lebanon. 7 The residence of General Victor Khoury in Amchit was dynamited. 21 President Sarkis called for an understanding. 16 According to a study done by the national federation of syndicates, the cost of living had increased by 90% in four years. 29 The President concluded his visit to Paris with disappointment. France took a moderate position while thousands of Lebanese who fled to Paris exhorted the French government to react. However, politics has its own reasons. 5 The Arab tripartite committee including Saudi and Kuwaiti ambassadors and a Syrian general, met in Baabda in presence of the chief of State. The committee excluded any immediate resort to the army. 8 A serious incident was reported in Jounieh. 11 Dany Chamoun, a military leader of the NLP, was attacked on his way to the AUH, but escaped unharmed. 20 Following a governmental reshuffling, General Victor Khoury became Minister of Defense, replacing Fouad Boutros.
1979 5 Lebanon entered a complacency phase. 6 President Elias Sarkis re-affirmed the rejection of the implantation. The chief of State requested the reinforcement for the UNIFL 8 The bad weather provoked considerable damages. 12 Members of the Commission of Justice requested the adoption of a law prohibiting the sale of lands to non-Lebanese. In the south, it seemed that many lands have been sold to non-Lebanese. 16 The disappearance of the Imam Sadr was back on the news. Seven young Lebanese Shiite militiamen hijacked the MEA Boeing 720, in order to attract the world's attention on the sequestration of the Imam. The militants affirmed that General Kadhafi, who was vigorously opposed to the Palestinian settlement in Lebanon, detained Imam Moussa Sadr. The hijackers surrendered to the Lebanese justice at night. 19 The Israeli army launched a triple air, ground and sea operation against Arnoun, Aichieh and the costal region. These events caused 16 dead, 12 injured and 25 prisoners. 22 One of the closest collaborators of Yasser Arafat, Ali Hassan Salameh, nicknamed of Abou Hassan, died in an explosion. The attack that took place in the Snoubra sector caused 11 dead and 17 injured. 23 Considering the inflation and the depreciation of the Lebanese pound, new 250 LP bills were put in circulation starting February 1. 5 New identity cards bearing no mention of religion, were also due to be released soon. 6 One dead and 10 injured were reported on the 'Ring of death' under sniper shots. 12 Brian Urqhart, the assistant Secretary General of the United Nations, examined with Lebanese officials the modalities of the Army's deployment in the South next to the UNIFL Israel nevertheless rejected the program. 28 Saudi troops decided to withdraw from the Arabic Strike Force. The Lebanese tried to dissuade them. 17 Saudi soldiers packed and got ready to leave Lebanon without warning. The next day, after it had been decided that 1200 Lebanese soldiers would replace them, the Saudis changed their minds. 20 A car bomb containing explosives operated by remote control, parked next to the military council of the Phalange Party was found. This attack aimed at the chief of the Lebanese Forces, Bechir Gemayel. 21 Thousands of women demonstrated in the southern suburbs. 23 Finally, 600 Lebanese soldiers replaced the Saudis in East Beirut in an atmosphere of popular emotion. 24 While Hoss was claiming the revision of the taking over operation, arguing that there are not enough soldiers nor material, combats were raging in the Batroun region between the Phalange Party and the Marada, followers of President Frangieh. 1 50,000 demonstrators organized a walk between Bourj-Brajneh and Ghobeiri to support the Islamic Republic in Iran. 2 A rocket attack was launched against the American embassy in Beirut. Three missiles were shot from a car. Small damages were reported. 6 A general strike to protest against the insufficient salary increase paralyzed the country. The syndicates granted a delay of 3 months to the government. 8 The United Arab Emirates called back their "Green Helmets". Syria was the only country running for the next Arabic Strike Force mandate. 10 Israel launched a double air strike against military targets in Tyr and Damour. 3 people dead and 15 injured were reported. President Hoss began an Arab tour trying to obtain the renewal of the mandate of the Arabic Strike Force. 18 An army battalion deployed in the UNIFL zone in the South, despite bombardments by Saad Haddad’s militias against the Lebanese soldiers. The latter have come all the way from Yarze. The same day, the rebel officer Saad Haddad proclaimed the State of Free Lebanon. He was dismissed from the Lebanese army the following day. 21 The United States reaffirmed through their ambassador in Lebanon, their support to President Elias Sarkis and considered Saad Haddad and his men as rebels. 22 In a new episode of the vendetta opposing the Zghoriotes to the Phalangists, a massacre was perpetrated in Shmout, in the caza of Jbeil, where the Marada shot 11 Phalangist militiamen. 26 While Israel was bombing several localities in the South, the Security Council restated its support to the unity and integrity of Lebanon. 1 A big scientific study was concluded with 888 Lebanese who are 16 to 22 years old. The results were as follows: 73% of the Lebanese youth were interested in politics 91% read everyday one or two political newspapers 56% sympathized with parties 34% adhered to parties 32% had fought One girl out of eight carried arms 3 2,000 persons cheered Fayrouz who was performing at the Olympia. 6 The Israeli aviation, aiming at a Palestinian target, killed five innocents and injured 15 others in a wedding ceremony in the Akkar. All the victims were Lebanese with, among them, several kids. 8 Power cuts became more and more frequent in the country. The Director of the Electricité du Liban recommended to the population to save power. 9 President Elias Sarkis urged the United Nations and the Arabs to assume their responsibilities. The chief of the State violently condemned the repeated Israeli aggressions against Lebanon qualifying them of flagrant challenge to human principles. 11 In Bablieh, seven children were killed by a bomb they were manipulating. 13 Amine Gemayel, deputy of the Northern Metn and member of the Phalange Party's political bureau, escaped from an assassination attempt that nearly cost him his two children's life. A plastic explosive (20 kg of TNT) tied to a 122 mm bomb placed in a trunk of a tree, exploded at the time Amine Gemayel's car went by. He was injured in the face. This incident caused a general strike in the Eastern regions. 15 The Phalange Party and the LNP merged under the sign of cooperation with the State. 16 The Hoss cabinet resigned. 28 100,000 civilians flew towards Saida, Zahrani, the Chouf and Beirut due to the Israeli bombardments. 31 At the meeting of the Security Council, Lebanon claimed the reinforcement of the UNIFL. Moreover, Beirut requested the condemnation of Israel and the re-activation of the Armistice Commission. 2 50 polio cases were reported in Lebanon. 4 Pierre Gemayel, Chief of the Phalange Party, escaped a killing attack in Nahr el Kalb. 11 4 Shiite bodies from Afqa were discovered on the beach in Zalka. 14 After having renewed the UNIFL mandate for six months, the United Nations proclaimed the validity of the Armistice Commission. The Security Council deplored Israeli aggressions and asked all parties to cooperate with the blue helmets. 16 After murderous combats, the Lebanese authorities decided to send the army to Ain el Remmane at the beginning of the week. 21 Violent combats with heavy armaments opposed the Lebanese army and the Arab Strike Force at the jurd of Akoura killing 7 Lebanese and injuring 19 persons, 13 of which were militiamen. 21 Elias IV, Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and the Orient died. 27 Syrians and Israelis faced each other in the sky of Damour. Four Syrian Migs were shut down. At the Southern border, shelling continued between Progressive Palestinians on one side and the militia of Saad Haddad and Israel on the other. 28 The Arab Strike Force mandate was renewed for 6 months. 30 The 'race for peace' organized by the Lebanese Federation of Athletics under the patronage of L'orient-Le Jour was a manifestation of the Lebanese sportsmen in favor of national unity. Departed from Achrafieh, the 66 participants representing 18 clubs from all the Lebanese regions met in Manara after having crossed the Fouad Chehab Ring. 2 President Elias Sarkis asked Selim El Hoss to form the government. 10 An artillery duel opposed the Arab Strike Force to the Lebanese Forces in Hadeth. 12 Unrest spread in West Beirut where Shiite militiamen manifested their anger against the eventual visit to Beirut of Colonel Kadhafi. The Lebanese government cancelled, under pressure from both officials and Shiite masses, the visit of the Libyan president. 16 Two months after the resignation of the Hoss Cabinet formed at the end of the 75-76 war, Selim El Hoss announced the formation of his second Cabinet. The ministerial team included: 21 At Mont La Salle, many fans applauded Joe Dassin, the baladin-poete. 22 The Israeli aviation bombarded Damour, Naameh, Sarafand and Adloun, making heavy casualties: 18 dead and 70 wounded including women and children. 23 A Lebanese cargo airplane from the freight company 'Trans Mediterranean Airway' crashed on one of the Beirut Airport runways. The six occupants of the four engine aircraft died. 9 The Cabinet won the Parliament's confidence by the majority of 54 votes against nine. 13 The Iraqi ambassador was wounded during an attack in Jnah. 14 Tension reached its peak everywhere in Lebanon. 16 The Lebanese weightlifter Mohammed Traboulsi won several gold medals during the 11th Asian championship of weightlifting that was taking place in Tokyo. 17 While the truce was being confirmed at the port and downtown, the situation escalated in the South where the Israeli artillery and Saad Haddad's artillery bombarded several localities. In the North, the Marada attacked a Phalange checkpoint in Barbara located between Jbeil and Batroun. The operation resulted in 3 dead and 5 injured among the Phalangist militiamen. 20 A car bomb exploded prematurely in Achrafieh killing the two occupants of the vehicle. A disaster had just been avoided. 21 A deluge of fire fell on Tyr and Nabatyeh and hit a religious monastery causing 4 deaths and 28 injuries. The shelling was extended to the borders of Saida and Jezzine. 31 On the occasion of the first anniversary of the disappearance of Imam Moussa Sadr, a general strike paralyzed Beirut. For the first time Sheikh Mohammed Mehdi chamseddine accused the Libyans of his disappearance. 7 Three commandos hijacked an Alitalia airplane. Their objective was to denounce Kadhafi in front of the international opinion. 141 passengers out of 175 were released at the airport of Rome. The air pirates surrendered to the Iranians the next day. 8 Dalida fascinated her fans at the Piccadilly. September 11 12 The notables of Zghorta and Becharreh reconciled under the aegis of Patriarch Khoreiche. In a common declaration, the notables requested the deployment of the army in their region. 15 Several hundreds of women gathered at the Arts and Crafts garden and head towards the office of the Prime Minister. Most of them were originally from the South and they were claiming peace. 17 A delegation of black American officials arrived in Beirut to meet with Lebanese and Palestinian officials. 20 Numerous typhoid cases were reported in Lebanon but there hasn't been any epidemic outbreak in the country. 22 President Elias Sarkis delivered an important speech, in which he emphasized the overriding role the army should play. Without it 'the State will be a body with no soul', he said. He insisted that the Arabs should stop to shilly-shally about Southern Lebanon. 26 Shiite leaders headed by Sheikh Mohammed Mehdi Chamseddine requested the deployment of the army in Southern Lebanon. 2 Linking the crisis with the settlement of the Palestinian problem, the Pope declared that Lebanon should remain a model of coexistence. 4 A light earthquake shook the region of Saida without any victim. 4 The Minister of Foreign affairs, Fouad Boutros, called upon the United Nations to end Israeli aggressions in the South, to freeze the activities of the Fedayin, to reinforce the UNIFL, and to dissociate the Lebanese problem from the regional crisis. 7 Samir Bannout was sacred world champion of plastic beauty at the Colombo Championship in the United States. 8 Phalangist armed elements set up a surprise checkpoint in Ainata, the road leading to the Cedars, and took 70 hostages from Zghorta. The Marada retaliated by taking 230 hostages that were released on October 12, following a call launched by Pope John Paul II. 17 A wooden Christ that has been in the Ain Trez Greek Catholic convent since the last century could be the work of Michel-Angelo. The authenticity of this work had been guaranteed with 90% confidence by a first appraisal in Rome last September. 23 Phalangist elements and the LNP fought in Beit Mery. 25 The Lebanese government who had just launched a wide offensive against barratry and smuggling, adopted serious measures to insure the supervision of the coasts and to prevent pirate cargos from accosting in the clandestine ports. 27 A car bomb exploded in basta, next to the office of the Army of Arabic Lebanon provoking 8 deaths and 32 injuries. The attack was followed by a strike in West Beirut. 28 Israel stiffened its position. 1 Combats between the Amal movement and soldiers from the Arab Strike Force caused 5 dead and 17 wounded. 1 The Marada imposed a fuel blockade against the eastern regions in order to obtain the release of the hostages. 12 The work document that Lebanon was going to present in Tunis, contained 6 main points: exercising pressure on the United States to end Israeli aggressions, freezing the actions of the Fedayin, laying the Lebanese authority in the South, banning any illegal armed presence, re-activating the Beiteddine Committee, and grouping guerillas in some specified zones. 16 The dollar registered its highest level in Beirut, reaching 347 Lebanese Pounds, something that never happened before. 22 For the first time since 1974, the Lebanese celebrated Independence Day with showiness. 23 The Tunis summit was disappointing. Lebanon received only a solemn proclamation of support doubled by a financial assistance up to 2 billion dollars, but the Southern Lebanon problem remained unsolved, the summit having just called the State and the resistance to get along. 1 A total shortage of fuel paralyzed the capital, as well as the mountain and the South; the reasons for this shortage remained unknown. 7 For the first time in Lebanon, a particularly delicate surgical intervention was successfully undertaken. Professor Wafic Sinno performed an implantation of an artificial crystalline at the Hotel-Dieu hospital. 19 An ongoing manifestation in Tripoli went out of control. The demonstrators protesting against the increase of the cost of living, vandalized Tripoli's seraglio and molested the Mohafez of Northern Lebanon. The administrations and public services clerks in Tripoli decided to stop working for 3 days. 26 Efforts intensified to free the Zghortiote hostages. Sleiman Frangieh set the deadline to December 31.
1980 2 The chief of the 'Iranian volunteers', Hodjatolislam Mohammed Montazeri, held a press conference in Beirut during which he reasserted his men's determination to go to South Lebanon to 'fight imperialism and Zionism.' And he added: 'We will come by thousands.' 18 A Shiite hijacked an MEA Boeing 707. 21 The Lebanese army projected to deploy in South Lebanon while Israel was strongly opposed to this project. 22 The Arab Strike Force withdrew from the road going South. This initiative surprised the authorities. 25 Fights opposed the Phalange Party and the NLP in Ehmej and Annaya. The road leading to Jbeil was closed. An acute crisis erupted between the two parties. 30 The situation worsened in Ehmej. Some sources reported 4 dead and 10 injured persons. 3 Arab Strike Force units stationed in Beirut projected to withdraw towards Aley in the next few days. The decision surprised the government and the chief of State presided a meeting to study how to fill the gap. 5 Mgr Elias Audeh was elected the Greek Orthodox Metropolite of Beirut. 7 The most beautiful blue eyes in the world visited Lebanon. Alain Delon arrived at the Beirut International Airport and charmed the Lebanese. 7 Confrontations occurred between the Phalangists and the Zghortiotes in Knat, killing ten persons. Many fights opposing the two parties followed. Shells hit several villages in the cazas of Batroun, Koura, and Jbeil and over 10,000 civilians flew the combats. Finally, the Arab Strike Force entered Knat, and order was reestablished in the region on February 18. 9 Bahige Takieddine, Minister of Interior and Tourism, and deputy of the Chouf, died from a heart attack. 13 The Phalangist deputy from Jezzine, Edmond Risk was kidnapped, causing a rising tension in the region. 23 Criminal madness was unleashed in Lebanon. An odious assault was reported in the Sursock district. A car bomb killed 8 persons including Maya, Bechir Gemayel's 20 months old daughter, and injured 20 others. This explosion was aimed at the chief commander of the Lebanese Forces. 24 Selim Laouzi, owner of the Hawadess, a local newspaper, was kidnapped on the Beirut International Airport road. The kidnapping of this eminent figure of the Lebanese press provoked strong emotions in the political environment and the Editors Syndicate decided to call for a strike. 4 The mutilated body of Selim Laouzi was found in the forests of Aramoun ten days after his kidnapping. 5 In a message addressed to the Nation, the President of the Republic proclaimed the State's Arab and internal options. He rejected the Camp David agreements, and underlined the coordination between Lebanon and Syria wile respecting the sovereignty of both countries. Furthermore, he refused the idea of creating mini-states and reassured his attachment to freedom. 5 Seven Zghortiotes were released in exchange of eleven Phalangists. The exchange of hostages took place after 5 months of detention. 6 Units from the Arab Strike Force positioned in the Sin el Fil- Dekouaneh-Mekalles region started to gather in order to withdraw towards Jamhour-Aley. The total withdrawal should be executed by Saturday night and the Lebanese army would replace the Syrian soldiers. 9 Edmond Rizk who had been kept hostage in Zghorta since February 13, was released. 12 A car bomb exploded on the Dora-Nahr el Mott boulevard, a few seconds after the passage of Camille Chamouns' convoy. 12 12 persons were killed due to the use of spoiled flower in the Akkar. 13 Fights opposed Amal to the Fateh, killing seven persons in the Ouzaï-Aramoun region. Leaders of the National Movement started to mediate between the two parties to end the dispute. 18 The population protested in vain against the use of the Normandy bay in Beirut as a garbage dumping site. 22 Tanker owners suspended the delivery of fuel causing a gas shortage in Beirut. Strikers claimed the return of vehicles that had disappeared in Saida. 9 The Council of Ministers raised the wages in the private sector by 29%. The ceiling of the raise was fixed at 625 Lebanese Pound, while the floor of the raise was fixed at 150 Lebanese pounds. The minimum salary increased therefore from 525 to 675 Lebanese Pounds. 10 Israelis settled in the UNIFL zone, but withdrew progressively in the following days. Beirut called upon the Security Council to convene urgently. 12 Saad Haddad militiamen attacked UNIFL soldiers. Bombings destroyed two United Nations helicopters in Nakoura. 15 An important Shiite demonstration was organized in Ghobeire to protest against the disappearance of Imam Mohammed Baker el Sadr, arrested in Iraq. Armed elements fired on the cortege, killing one person and injuring 6 others. 16 The conflict between Amal and the Iraqi Baas worsened. 17 The relation between the Phalange Party and Syria softened after Syrian authorities released 16 Phalangist militants. 18 The South was still bleeding. 18 persons were killed in an Israeli raid against Sarafand and Adloun. 18 A car bomb exploded at Kabb Elias killing 9 persons and wounding 30 others. 22 A car parked 50 meters away from the regional office of the Phalange Party in Jdeideh exploded injuring 5 persons. 24 The Security Council adopted a resolution condemning the Israeli military intervention in Lebanon and the de facto alliance between Israel and Saad Haddad's militia. Washington suggested the creation of a special commission in charge of finding a final settlement in South Lebanon. 2 A high-ranking Shiite religious dignitary, Imam Hajje Hassan Chirazi was assassinated in Beirut, on the Ramlet el Bayda Corniche, onboard of a taxi. 8 A seaside resort called 'Bella Mar' collapsed while still under construction. Eight persons lost their lives in the accident. 15 Following artillery duels between the Lebanese Forces and the Syrian National Social Party in the Upper-Metn, an army buffer force deployed in the region. 19 Snipers reappeared killing two persons on the Ring. 20 In a verbal message transmitted through the US ambassador John Gunther Dean, President Elias Sarkis urged the US President Carter to stop Lebanon's agony. 23 Shells fell on the center of Saida killing 4 persons and wounding 14 others. 23 The Northern Lebanese front flared up again. Militiamen from the Marada launched an attack against the Phalangist positions. In the jurd of the Batroun region, five persons were killed and 20 others wounded. 27 Violent confrontations burst between Shiite militiamen from Amal and a coalition including the Communist Party and the Resistance. The confrontations lasted three days, claiming a big number of victims. The Arab Strike Force mediated between the belligerent parties. A normalization and demilitarization agreement was signed in Damascus with the participation of the PLO. 28 200 persons were poisoned in Tyr after drinking polluted water. 31 The Lebanese championship of athletics was held for the first time since 1975. 3 Violent combats were reported in Saida. 6 Selim el Hoss resigned from office. President Sarkis accepted his resignation on June 16. 13 The European Community called upon all parties in her meeting in Venice, inviting them to end all actions that might harm Lebanon's independence and sovereignty. 15 Violent confrontations between the Army of Arab Lebanon and Amal were reported in the Bekaa region. The Arab Strike Force evacuated Ahmed Khatib, who was isolated in Nabi Chit. 17 While the UNIFL mandate was extended for another 6 months, a car bomb exploded in Raouche killing one person and wounding 35 others. 19 The first official exams since the beginning of the war were held as usual. 30 The Israelis attacked a base belonging to the Arab Liberation Front in Kasmieh. This operation killed 11 persons and injured 29 others. 1 Julio, who sold 75,000,000 discs around the world, performed in Lebanon. 4 Artillery duels and armed confrontations continued between the Phalange Party and the NLP in the regions of Wadi-Chahrour, Betchay, Bsous,Kfarchima, and their surroundings. 16 persons were killed and 20 others wounded. The next day, the Lebanese army took in charge the areas of Wadi-Chahrour, Betchay, Bsous, Kfarchima, Bsaba, and Bleibel in the Southern-Metn, ending the conflict between the Phalange Party and the NLP in the region. 6 Violent confrontations opposed in Ain Mreisse the Mourabitoun and the Arab Socialist Union. 3 persons died and 16 others were wounded. 8 Phalangist militiamen launched an assault against all the NLP's offices and barracks in Achrafieh, on the coast, in Jbeil, in the Kesrouan, and in the Metn. The most murderous combats took place in Acharfieh, Amchit, and especially Safra where the domicile of the NLP defense secretary, Dany Chamoun, was burned. Chamoun's daughter was injured. He flew to Fakra and announced his resignation. The Phalangists continued their attack and reached Fakra where they dynamited Chamoun's home. He flew again to Baskinta. He went back later to Yarze on board of an army helicopter, along with Amine Gemayel. The Phalange Party controlled therefore all NLP's offices and barracks. 9 The employees of the civil aviation launched an open strike at the Beirut International Airport. 11 In order to reach an agreement with the Phalange Party, Camille Chamoun requested the restitution of the NLP's posts and armaments as well as the return to the Status Quo. Dany Chamoun visited President Sleiman Frangieh. 12 Civil airplanes were diverted to Rayak because of the strike that hit the Beirut International Airport. But traffic at the airport resumed on the following day. 13 A bomb exploded in a movie theater at Mazraa killing 5 persons and injuring 18. 20 Takieddine Solh was asked, by the President of the Republic, to form a new Government of National Union. 21 Charles Rizk, President of Télé-Liban's Board of Directors, was kidnapped from his home. He was released a few hours later. He presented immediately his resignation to the President of the Republic. The employees at Télé-Liban responded by launching an open strike. 23 Riad Taha, a 53 years old well known journalist, and President of the Press Syndicate for 13 years, was cowardly shot at Chourane by professional killers who opened fire on his car; 7 bullets hit him. The Press Syndicate claimed damages for a criminal act. 26 Violent combats burst in the Bekaa region between Amal and LFA killing 11 persons and injuring 15 others. 30 The nightmare continued. A car bomb exploded in a busy street of Achrafieh killing three persons and wounding 15 others. 5 A Shiite Ulema, Sheikh Ali Badreddine, was found dead in the region of Zahrani. 7 Car bombs continued in Lebanon in a cortege of horror. A car bomb exploded in Achrafieh, Sassine square, killing one person and injuring 30 others. The population developed a real phobia and was haunted by these cars that spread death. 9 President Takieddine Solh announced that he will suspend his efforts to form a new Cabinet. 'It is still not possible to put together a government of active forces,' he said. 13 President Sarkis rejected, in front of Gaston Thor, the President of the Council of Ministers of the EEC, the settlement of the Palestinians in Lebanon as part of the global settlement of the Middle East problem. 19 An Israeli raid targeted the region of Arnoun. 23 Heavy armament combats were signaled in Tripoli between local militias, causing 16 deaths and 40 injuries. 24 5 persons were killed and 35 others wounded by a car bomb explosion in front of a coffee shop in Reyfoun. 24 An air combat took place over South Lebanon between Syrian Migs and Israeli airplanes. A Syrian plane crashed next to Jbaa. 26 Sheikh Abdel Amir Kabalan, the nephew of the Mufti Jaafari, was killed next to the Unesco. 27 The US ambassador, John Gunther Dean, escaped from a killing attempt in Hazmieh. Killers shot his armored car. 26 An assault was launched against the US embassy in West Beirut. Two missiles were fired on the chancellery hitting the second and fourth floors. The aggressors remained unidentified. 5 While the war was raging between Iraq and Iran, assaults continued against several embassies in Beirut. After the US, the Iraqi, and the Iranian chancelleries, a load of dynamite was thrown on the Saudi embassy in Bliss Street at Ras-Beirut. 8 Terrorist actions were on the rise. Explosions ravaged the 'Alia' offices and the apartment of the Swiss ambassador. 10 A rocket was fired on the US embassy, but the projectile fell on an adjacent building without making any victim. 11 Dalida made a triumph at the Summerland. 17 Israel perpetrated a new aggression against a Fedayeen base in the central area of South Lebanon. At the same time, confrontations between the Phalange Party and the NLP were reported in Zahle. A car bomb exploded in the airport of the BIA, injuring 6 persons. 22 Chafic Wazzan was asked to form a new government, while Israel launched an air strike againt Damour. The aerial Traffic at the Beirut International Airport was interrupted. 23 A dialog government was formed. The new team included 22 Ministers of which 5 were State Ministers. Chafic Wazzan: Prime Minister, Minister of Interior Fouad Boutros: Vice-President of the Council, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants Joseph Skaff: Minister of Defense Nazih Bizri: Minister of Health Khatchig Babikian: Minister of Health Rene Moawad : Minister of National Education and Fine Arts Khaled Joumblatt: Minister of Economy and Commerce Joseph Aboukhater: Minister of State Michel Murr: Minister of Posts and Telecommunications Anouar Sabbah: Minister of Hydraulic and Electric Resources Ali El Khalil: Minister of Finance Mahmoud Ammar: Minister of State Elias Hraoui: Minister of Public Works and Transports Mounir Aboufadel: Minister of State Mohammed Youssef Beydoun: Minister of Industry and Oil Cesar Nasr : Minister of State Sami Younes: Minister of State Selim Jahel : Minister of Housing and Cooperatives Abdel Rahman Labban: Minister of Labor and Social Affairs Mostapha Dernayka: Minister of Agriculture Marwan Hamade : Minister of Tourism 27 The Phalange Party and the NLP fought in Ain el Remmaneh. Camille Chamoun threatened to withdraw from the Lebanese Front. 31 The Lebanese army evacuated Ain el Remmaneh and gathered on the Damascus road and on major Streets. 1 The Safir press was dynamited in Hamra. 1 Over 2000 persons watched the Marlboro Rally Mountain 1980. 5 After Bechir Obeid and Kamal Kheir Beik, two leaders from the Social National Syrian Party, were killed in West Beirut, as well as a civilian called Mounir Fatha, bloody confrontations opposed the Mourabitoun to the SNSP. 7 An agreement was reached between Camille Chamoun and Pierre Gemayel to unify the Lebanese Forces. 9 Three young men from Hammana were killed in awful conditions. Their bodies were found in a well in the Chouf. 10 A double assault spread terror in Achrafieh. 17 Prime Minister, Chafic Wazzan announced that sanctions will be taken against militaries and officers responsible for the Army's passive attitude during the Ain el Remmaneh incidents. 23 The short movie made by the Lebanese Randa Chahal, Autrefois, won the special prize of the Seventh Carthage Cinematographic Days. 3 The government held its first meeting on October 25. Despite the opposition of the Amal movement, the four Shiite ministers attended the meeting. 3 A murderous Israeli raid was perpetrated between Damour and Saadyat. A Lebanese memorandum presented to the UN reported 15 deaths and 13 injuries. 21 The situation worsened in Zahleh under heavy bombardments. These confrontations between Zahliotes and soldiers from the Arab Strike Force continued until December 26 when a cease-fire eased the tension. 31 A Syrian-Israeli air fight took place in the Lebanese sky. Damascus admited that its two Migs were hit and that two Israeli airplanes were shot down. Tel-Aviv denied this information.
1981 3 After its withdrawal from Ain El Remmaneh on October 31, 1980 the Army repositioned on the main road axes in the region. 5 Militiamen led by the dissident officer Saad Haddad bombarded the locality of Hasbaya, causing important damages. 5 Michel Rocard, member of the French Socialist Party's national secretariat met with President Elias Sarkis, with the Minister of Foreign Affairs Chafic Wazzan, as well as with the PLO leader, Yasser Arafat. 8 The Arab Strike Force withdrew from Zahleh. 9 A new phase of the war started in Lebanon: the war of televisions. The 'Lebanese Forces' wanted to broadcast under the name 'Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation' and the Mourabitun seemed to be willing to give them hard time. As a result, they both emitted on the same channel and thus jammed the image. 18 Jean Francois Revel, the director of the French weekly magazine L'Express, left Beirut after a 48-hour visit. He declared before his departure: 'The actual drama in Lebanon is the result of the convergence of external factors rather than an internal crisis'. 19 Three blue helmets of the UNIFL were assassinated East of Tyr. 21 20,000 displaced persons from Damour participated in a peaceful walk towards the presidential palace to claim their return home. 23 Combats were raging between militiamen from the Amal movement and the Popular Palestinian Liberation Front (PPLF) in Chyah. 28 President Elias Sarkis delivered a speech at the Third Islamic States Summit in Taef, where he headed the Lebanese delegation. He declared: 'Lebanon cannot bear anymore the Palestinian armed presence on its land'. 29 The Israeli aviation bombarded Saida and Nabatyeh for two days. An artillery duel opposed the 'Common Forces' to the militiamen of Saad Haddad. These Israeli bombardments killed 14 and injured 30 others. 31 A violent storm hit Lebanon. 4 Four Lebanese militaries were killed in a helicopter accident. The Aircraft crashed on the hills of Sannine. 13 The kidnapping on February 6 in Beirut of the chargé d'affaires of Jordan in Lebanon, remained at the center of preoccupation of the country's leaders. They adopted a series of security measures for the protection of embassies. 13 A Syrian-Israeli air duel took place in the sky of the Bekaa region. 14 Snipers paralyzed the circulation in Sodeco, the main road connecting East and West Beirut. 18 The Council of Ministers centered part of its deliberations to the Sodeco region that was catching fire on a daily basis. Chafic Wazzan pledged to cease the fire. 19 His Beatitude Bishop Maximos V Hakim escaped a killing attempt on the road of Bhamdoun. The aggressors' identity was unknown. 24 Shells from different calibers fell on the Eastern residential neighborhoods, spreading destruction, fires, and terror. The population wondered why these blind bombardments were perpetrated and until when would they continue. 1 The city of Saida went through a day of fear and anguish after four bombs fell in its busiest streets, and especially after Saad Haddad threatened to bomb the city. The next day, the fighting spread to Southern Lebanon. 6 A TNT load exploded in Zahleh inside a travel agency, killing three persons and injuring 28 others. 10 The convoy of the United States ambassador in Lebanon skimmed automatic arm shots in the port's sector. 13 A Lebanese Army unit positioned in the Kantara locality following an agreement with the UNIFL commandant. On March 15, 50 soldiers deployed in the village of Chaqra. However, Saad Haddad was opposed to the reinforcement of the Army in the South. 16 Israel retorted at the Lebanese decision to send the Army to the frontier region by bombarding the UNIFL. The United Nations Secretary General, Kurt Waldheim was outraged and requested an urgent Security Council meeting. 17 After the last bombardments in Southern Lebanon, the Army pulled back 15 km away from Kantara but redeployed again on March 20. 20 The United Nations Security Council condemned Saad Haddad without mentioning Israel. 23 Violent confrontations burst in Baalbeck between Amal and the Iraqi Baas. 28 After Sodeco and Berjaoui, the confrontations spread to the Museum sector. The Syrians imposed a cease-fire and tried to compel militiamen to withdraw from Ras El Nabeh. 2 The Lebanese will remember this date for long time. Violence brought back to Beirut the darkest experiences of 1975-1976. Blind bombardments targeted the Eastern and Western sectors of the capital. Thousands of students were trapped in their schools and the population panicked. There were heavy casualties: 50 persons died and more than 200 were wounded. 4 An intensive bombardment in Zahleh killed 20 and injured 100. 7 The Arab Strike Force maintained it pressure on Zahleh by bombarding it for the seventh consecutive day. 8 A shell storm fell on East Beirut particularly in Badaro, Ain El Remmaneh and Chyah. Several bombs hit H™tel-Dieu leaving important damages. 9 For the first time in Zahleh since the beginning of the confrontations, the Red Cross was able to evacuate 19 persons seriously injured. 10 During his meeting in Strasbourg, the European Parliament called for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Lebanon, except for the UNIFL. 10 Israel bombarded Delhamiye and Arab Salim killing 16 persons. 12 Following several days of violent confrontations with the Phalange militia, the Arab Strike Force completed its occupation of the most strategic hills of Zahleh. The supply channels between the capital of the Bekaa and Mount Lebanon were closed. 20 The situation was worsening in Lebanon. Violence unleashed in the South where artillery duels and air raids on Nabatyeh and Saida killed 16 and injured 33. Sporadic bombardments shred the silence in Zahleh. East Beirut was violently shelled and bombings spread to Nahr El Kalb causing five deaths and 32 wounded. 22 The nightmare continued. The Lebanese authorities were completely powerless to stop the violence and the conflicting parties were unable to reach an agreement. The Beirut International Airport was closed to traffic and both dead and wounded victims continued to shed their blood on this agonizing Lebanese land. 27 Residential areas in Beirut were the target of sporadic bombardments that killed six persons and injured 90 others. 28 While the Syrian Foreign Affairs Minister, Abdel Halim Khaddam met with President Chamoun, Pierre Gemayel and members of the Islamic Union at the Baabda palace, Israeli airplanes bombed new positions occupied by the Syrian Army on Mount Sannine's peak. The Israeli forces shot down two Syrian helicopters. 5 The Lebanese Syrian plan outlined three main stages: The national understanding, the settlement of the conflict between Beirut and Damascus, and the organization of the relation with Palestinians. 7 About 7,000 reinforcement Syrian troops were dispatched to the Bekaa region, to prepare against an eventual Israeli offensive. 8 The American envoy Philip Habib began his talks at the Baabda Palace. 9 Both sectors in Beirut witnessed a day of terror. Blind bombardments caused 21 dead and 98 wounded. The shelling reached Jounieh, Bkerkeh, and Beit Mery. 11 Once again, the civil population of East and West Beirut was under siege. The criminal violence claimed the lives of 18 persons and injured another173. A war psychosis haunted the Bekaa region where the residents were fleeing from the areas next to the SAM anti-aircrafts missiles deployed by the Syrian forces, fearing a Syrian-Israeli confrontation. 12 SAM missiles were launched against Israeli spy airplanes. 12 The Lebanese stock exchange market panicked as the dollar's exchange rate increased up to 4.45 LP. 13 A car bomb exploded in Chyah killing 6 and injuring 32 in addition to important material damages. 16 The Soviets and the Americans reinforced their military presence in the Mediterranean. 16 Washington advocated a fast resolution of the missile crisis to avoid a worsening of the situation. Beirut was hit by one bomb every three seconds. Twenty-seven persons were evacuated from Zahleh during a lull period. 17 Words were no longer enough to describe the horror of the war. How to describe the endless artillery duels, the depression of civilians buried in shelters, the magnitude of destructions? The guns didn't stop for 9 continuous hours on both sides of the dividing lines; 25 persons were killed and 118 wounded. What was at stake in this endless battle of Beirut? 18 While the civilian population continued to pay the high price of Man's madness, a Saudi solution plan was put into place. It stipulated the maintenance of SAM missiles in the Bekaa region, the progressive withdrawal of the Arab Strike Force from Lebanon, the limitation of Palestinian activities in the South and the reinforcement of the Lebanese central authority. 22 While the US envoy Philip Habib continued his trips between the different belligerents, the missile question seemed to be far from being settled as the parties concerned toughened their positions. 28 Following the departure of the American envoy, the Israeli aviation bombarded Palestinian bases in Damour causing hundred of dead or injured victims. 29 According to the American information service, 150 Libyan soldiers were in Lebanon for some time. Arafat declared that the Palestinian Resistance detained SAM missiles. 1 Blind bombardments hit the seaside resorts of Maameltein, Ouzaï and Manara. 18 people were killed and 270 were wounded. 1 According to a study by Maroun Baghdadi , more than 80 parties and political organizations were disputing the power or bits of the power in Lebanon. Among them organizations, committees, unions more or less homogeneous, more or less ephemerals, more or less clandestine; some were born with the war, others had disappeared because of it. 5 A generalized blaze of fire in Beirut and its suburbs kept spreading death. 8 The Arab Vigilance Committee, ending its meetings in Beiteddine, took note of all the parties' commitment to respect the cease-fire on the Lebanese territory. On the other hand, the Committee announced that it would meet again on June 23 in Saudi Arabia and on July 4 in Beiteddine. 9 The American envoy Philip Habib began a new round of visits in the region. 23 While sporadic combats continued between the Army and the Arab Strike Force in Beirut, the city of Zahleh was under heavy bombardment. 23 The Arab Vigilance Committee resumed its meetings in Ryad at the level of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs. 30 95 militiamen from the Lebanese Forces were evacuated from Zahleh with their individual weapons after having surrendered their heavy weapons to the Arab Strike Force and to the Internal Security Forces. An Internal Security Forces unit was positioned in the neighborhoods of Zahleh. 2 The Sodeco crossing way was officially opened to traffic. But the calm didn't last for more than 2 days, as snipers were back into action. 4 The Arab Foreign Affairs Ministers met in Beiteddine. However, no concrete measure was taken, it was a total impasse. 8 The chief of State Elias Sarkis, met with Bechir Gemayel and Pierre Gemayel. He announced after the meeting that he was given guarantees concerning the rupture of the relations with Israel. 10 In retaliation to an air raid launched by Israel in Southern Lebanon, the Palestinians bombarded Kyriat Shmona injuring 14 Israelis. 16 Within a few hours, the Israeli aviation destroyed 9 bridges in Southern Lebanon cutting off the supply roads of the Palestinian forces. 32 persons were killed and 97 were injured in just one day. 17 Tel Aviv launched the bloodiest attack against Lebanon. 21 While the bombardment continued in South Lebanon, the Security Council ordered a cease-fire; but the latter wasn't observed despite the presence of the US envoy Philip Habib in the region. 24 Philip Habib finally succeeded in his mission. A cease-fire was reached and accepted by both the Israelis and the Palestinians. 27 The EDL started an electricity rationing program. There was a bad shortage of fuel due to the Israeli bombardment of the Zahrani oil refinery. 29 An air combat in which a Syrian MIG was shut down by Israeli Phantoms broke the precarious calm in Lebanon. 5 Violence surged in Tripoli. Bloody combats between the local militias continued in Tripoli claiming 20 dead and 40 injured. 13 The escalation of violence resumed in the capital while the country was entering a phase of political stagnation. 16 Elias Youssef Hannouch, 38 years old, former leader of the NLP, refugee in West Beirut since November 1980, was killed in Raoucheh with his two children. 17 20 persons were killed and 100 injured in the confrontations between the Amal movement and the Lebanese Communist Party in Chyah. 17 The Lebanese government called for an Arab summit to elaborate a common strategy against Israel and to relieve Lebanon from being the only country carrying the weight of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Chafic Wazzan declared in Taef: 'Lebanon cannot take further suffering'. 18 The baccalaureate exams were organized in a calm atmosphere. 21 The infernal bombardment cycle resumed. A bomb storm fell on Achrafieh and Basta, killing 3 persons, injuring 45 and destroying what was left to be destroyed. 30 The Internal Security Forces destroyed the illegal constructions in Ouzaï. 30 Claude Cheysson, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, declared after his 24-hour visit to Lebanon: 'It would be criminal to question the unity of Lebanon'. 3 A first encounter between Syrian officials and members of the Phalange Party in Baabda under the aegis of the Arab Committee resulted in the reopening of the roads. 4 The French ambassador, Louis Delamare, was cowardly assassinated 100 meters away from the Résidence des Pins. 5 Hamid Frangieh, one of the major figures of the Lebanese independence, died. Born in Ehden in 1907, he was the first Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Lebanese Independent State, in the 1943 cabinet of Riad Solh. He was deputy of Zghorta from 1943 to 1957. He negotiated in February 1948 the monetary convention with France. It was a big loss for Lebanon. 11 The Museum roadway was officially reopened after several days of shilly-shallying. 15 The axes longing the downtown's ruins up to Berjaoui and Sodeco were on fire since 7 o'clock in the morning. Several bombs fell on residential areas. 17 Two explosive attacks killed 29 persons and injured 116 in Chekka and Saida. Terrorism spread its tentacles to the entire country. 18 The nightmare continued. A car bomb exploded in Hay Soulloum killing three persons. 20 A bomb inside a theatre in Mazraa killed 4 and injured 27. 21 A car bomb in Hamra and an attack in Tripoli proved that horror was still haunting Lebanon. It seemed that it would never end. 28 Terrorism continued to spread in Lebanon. A car bomb exploded at Zrariyeh in the South killing 15 persons and injuring 50 others. 1 The horror record was broken. A car bomb devastated half of a street in the Boustani neighborhood in Tarik Jdideh killing 83 and injuring 225. Another car scheduled to explode a little bit later in the same area was defused. 18 The price of fuel increased by 36% and that of oil by 57%, which lead to shortages and a general increase of all prices. 26 Terrorism hit once again. 20 persons were injured in a car explosion in Sin el Fil. 2 The Arab Strike Force launched a security operation in the West of the capital where Palestinian, Libyan and Iranian influence multiplied lately. 20 Habib was expected to undertake a new mission in order to prevent a new round of hostilities in Lebanon. 24 A Lebanese delegation attended the Fez Summit, marked by a resounding failure. 27 Gerard Lenorman performed his famous song La ballade des gens heureux at the Casino du Liban in front of a public that still wanted to believe in happiness. 30 The Arab Strike Force conducted a spectacular raid in West Beirut. Hundreds of persons were arrested and taken to a barrack for questioning. 5 The residential areas were again bombarded with heavy artillery. 7 A Sadrist commando hijacked a Libyan airplane at the Beirut International Airport. The air pirates who held 43 hostages, injured a passenger and threatened to execute him in order to have the plane refueled. The aggressors called upon Khadafi to liberate the Imam. 10 Terrorism stroke in Tripoli where an attack caused 12 dead and 75 injured. 15 A bomb attack destroyed the Iraqi embassy. 20 persons were killed including the ambassador and 100 were wounded. 19 The explosion of a car bomb at the Unesco killed 16 persons and injured 18.
1982 3 Twenty days after the resumption of the Iraqi oil pumping to the Tripoli terminal, the pipeline was dynamited. This incident seemed to be part of the Iran-Iraq war. 4 The confrontations between Amal militiamen and 'Partisans of the Communist Organization in Lebanon' caused 11 deaths and 4 injuries in West Beirut. These fights resumed on January 6 didn't end until the intervention of the Arab Strike Force. 6 President Elias Sarkis declared: 'The world watches the Lebanese agony with indifference.' 8 Differences grew between Amal and the National Movement headed by Walid Joumblatt. 12 During a meeting in presence of Chafic Wazzan, the Moslem conservatives rejected the ' self-security ' principle in West Beirut. 19 The specter of a regional war arose when two Israeli airplanes were targeted by two Sam 6 shots over the Lebanese territory. 25 The Syndicate of Fishermen in Tyr launched a symbolic 24-hour strike in protest against recurring Israeli aggressions against fishermen. 28 The war between Amal and the National Movement was at its peak. The confrontations resumed and the tension reached Baalbeck and the Southern suburbs of Beirut. 1 The inflow of heavy Israeli weapons on the Lebanese territory continued. These weapons were installed in the borderline enclave controlled by Saad Haddad. 4 The investigation conducted in Italy on the vanishing of the Shiite Imam Moussa Sadr ended. The Italians were convinced that the Imam never left Libya. 8 Israel reiterated its threats against the South, while Lebanon continued its contacts to eliminate the dangers weighing on the Southern zone and to increase the number of UNIFL soldiers in the area. 13 A car bomb exploded next to the Palestinian camp of Ain El Heloueh killing 6 persons and injuring 12 others. 17 Tension rose in North Lebanon where serious incidents were reported. Armed elements opened fire on a checkpoint of the Arab Strike Force. The combats continued for the following days, killing 18 persons and injuring 40. 23 Two car bombs killed 4 persons and injured 54 others in Raoucheh. 24 A commando of the partisans of the Imam Moussa Sadr burst into the Beirut International Airport and took control of a Boeing 707 of the Kuwait Airways that had just landed with 195 passengers on board. The negotiations led to the release of the passengers. The commando members surrendered to the Arab Strike Force. After this incident, the Kuwaiti company interrupted its flights to Beirut. 25 1000 additional 'blue helmets' joined the UNIFL battalion. 27 The explosion of a car bomb killed 4 persons and wounded 26 others in Ouzaï. 1 The adjournment of the meeting that the Arab Vigilance Committee was going to hold, irritated the Lebanese officials. The latter considered that the Arabs were careless about the explosive situation in Lebanon. 6 Another car bomb exploded in Jnah killing 6 persons and injuring 17 others. 10 In his new mission to prevent the outbreak of war on the Lebanese-Israeli borderline, Habib gave insurances but no guarantees. At the same time, two car bombs exploded in Zouk and Maameltein. 16 The plot against foreign embassies continued. A large number of embassies closed their doors, while those that were still open were a regularly subjected to threats or assaults. 21 Violent combats opposed Amal and the Iraqi Baas. 31 A new car bomb exploded next to the Abed clock killing 2 persons and wounding 4 others. 10 The cease-fire in the South was fragile. Lebanon appealed to Washington, to the Security Council, and to the Arab League to stabilize the situation. 14 A general war was raging between Amal and the Palestinians. Meanwhile, the fights continued in the South and reached Beirut and its suburbs where 15 deaths were reported. 15 Two employees of the French consulate were assassinated in their apartment in Beirut. 20 A special envoy of the quai d'Orsay arrived to Lebanon to appease the French. 21 Six successive raids were reported within 90 minutes against Aramoun, Naameh and Damour, putting an end to a cease-fire that lasted 9 months. This new aggression claimed the lives of 80 victims. 23 13 people died and 12 were injured as a result of 24 hours of intermittent fights in Tripoli between the Iraqi Baas and the Communist Party militiamen. 27 The minimum wage was raised to 925 Lebanese Pounds. 28 A general strike was observed by both sectors of Beirut, to protest against the assassination, on April 26, of Sheikh Ahmad Assaf, president of the Union of Islamic Associations and Institutions. 2 The terrorists were now targeting religious instances. After the assassination of Sheikh Assaf, Father Abousleiman was killed. Two other persons were killed in a church. 9 Israel launched several raids in Southern Lebanon. 11 A cease-fire was concluded in Tripoli ending violent combats that lasted 5 days and killed 55 persons and injured 200 others. 24 A ferocious explosion hit the French embassy in Clémenceau killing 9 persons and wounding 26 others. 25 Israelis fighters shoot two Syrian Migs over the Kesrouan. The two pilots were handed in to the Arab Strike Force. 26 The French Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy declared during his visit in Beirut: 'France stays but is not at war with anyone.' 4 Within an hour, the Israeli airplanes inflicted on Beirut the toughest bombing since the Fakahani attack in seven successive rounds. Sixty persons were killed and 270 injured in these air raids against the sectors of the Sports City, Sabra, Chatila, and Bourj Brajneh. 5 The South was burning. Over 150 persons killed and 250 wounded were reported while the Israeli artillery, navy and aviation bombarded 38 towns and localities. 6 The Israelis invaded the South along three axes. 8 The Israelis made a surprise breakthrough in the Upper-Chouf in Moukhtara, Barouk, Baakline, up to Ain Zhalta. The Israeli Prime Minister Menahem Begin sent a message to the Syrian President Hafez El Assad asking him not to intervene in the fights. 9 A gigantic air battle took place over the Bekaa. The Israelis were 10 kilometers away from Beirut. 10 The Lebanese Army deployed in West Beirut. 11 207 civilians died and 647 were wounded as a result of the Israeli barbarian operations. 13 The Israeli troops attacked Baabda where they occupied the Seraglio and the governmental hospital. 16 The bombings resumed on West Beirut. 18 The Beirut International Airport was also bombed. 20 A Public Salvation Committee was constituted. It included: Bechjr Gemayel, Walid Joumblatt, Nabih Berry, Nasri Maalouf, Chafic Wazzan, and Fouad Boutros. Walid Joumblatt resigned from office a few days later. 25 A savage bombardment of Beirut caused tens of victims. Simultaneously, a violent battle was raging close to Aley. 28 The PLO accepted the idea of leaving Beirut to save the city, with, in return, an Israeli withdrawal from the surroundings of the capital. 2 In a press conference held at the Alexander hotel, the Israeli Defense Minister, Ariel Sharon, invited the Lebanese to fight against the Palestinians. 3 While waiting for the PLO's response to the Israeli conditions, West Beirut was under a tight blockade. 4 Without renouncing to the diplomatic option, Israel toughened the pressure on Beirut, by depriving its inhabitants of water and electricity. 5 The Israelis controlled the Beirut International Airport where violent fights opposed them to the Palestinian-Progressive Joint Forces. 6 The US President, Ronald Reagan, decided to send American troops to Lebanon in order to reestablish peace and evacuate the Fedayin. 9 While Beirut and its suburbs were severely bombed, Damascus refused to receive the Fedayin. 10 Philip Habib suggested that the French troops evacuate the Fedayin. 11 It was apocalypse in Beirut! The two sectors of the capital as well as the mountain were heavily bombed during 15 hours non-stop, killing 75 persons and injuring 180 others. 19 While Beirut was still under blockade, sporadic confrontations opposed the Israelis and the Palestinians, and innocent victims continued to fall. The President of the AUB, David Dodge, was kidnapped in the middle of the campus. 24 Bechir Gemayel announced his candidacy for the presidency of the Republic. 27 On the eve of the return to Beirut of the US envoy, and the opening of the conference of the Arab Committee, Israel bombed West Beirut. The Palestinian forces retorted by shelling East Beirut. 112 deaths and 232 injuries were reported so far. 29 The PLO pledged to withdraw its troops from Beirut. 31 Around a hundred women from West Beirut headed by the Prime Minister's wife, Whajiha Wazzan, gathered in the American University of Beirut for an open sit-in to protest against the blockade of West Beirut. 1 The occupation of West Beirut turned into an annihilation war. Violent attacks killed 165 persons and wounded 400 others. 4 West Beirut was violently bombed. President Elias Sarkis addressed a protest letter to the US President Ronald Reagan. 6 The Accra building occupied by refugees collapsed during an Israeli air raid on Beirut, provoking the death of 250 persons. 17 Prime Minister Chafic Wazzan announced that an agreement on the evacuation of the Fedayin from Beirut had been reached. 19 French, Italian, and American contingents were on their way to Lebanon. 21 397 Palestinian fighters were evacuated towards Larnaca after the arrival of the French paratroopers. 23 Bechir Gemayel was elected President of the Lebanese Republic at the second round, by 57 votes against five abstentions. 26 The Lebanese authorities claimed the withdrawal of the Fedayin from the Bekaa region and the North, while the Italian and French contingents arrived to Beirut. 29 The Lebanese Army deployed in the central district in Beirut while the soldiers of the Arab Strike Force still positioned in Beirut, were being evacuated. 31 As the Arab Strike force was achieving its withdrawal from Beirut, Israeli fighters shoot a Mig 25 over Antelias. 1 The last Palestinian fighters left Lebanon. In 12 days, 10,876 Fedayin and 2,700 Syrian soldiers had left the Lebanese territory. 2 The normalization continued. The Sodeco crossing way was opened to traffic. 4 The Internal Security Forces deployed in the Southern suburbs. 7 According to a United Nations report, between the 6th of June 1982 and the 15th of August 1982, 6,775 persons had been killed and 30,000 others wounded. Over 80% of these victims were civilians form West Beirut. According to the same source, 2,094 seriously injured persons had been burned by phosphor bombs. 10 The Marines left Beirut after having accomplished their mission. 12 Two bloody confrontations opposed the Army and the I.S.F on one side, and the West Beirut organizations on the other. 14 Bechir Gemayel was killed by a bomb set in the headquarters of the Phalange Party in Achrafieh. The explosion killed 20 persons and wounded 60 others. The Lebanese President was gone and the hope that had pervaded the hearts of the Lebanese had vanished in seconds. 15 Bechir Gemayel's funerals in Bickfaya united the whole country. A national mourning was announced for one week. All Lebanese parties denounced the criminal act that killed the future President of the Republic who was the advocate of a Lebanese identity and of the necessity of reaching a national understanding. 16 The Israelis' attacks against West Beirut continued, killing 31 persons and injuring 121 others. Major damages were also reported. 17 Amine Gemayel, Camille Chamoun and Raymond Eddeh announced their candidacy for the Presidency of the Republic. 17 Jawad Boulos died. He was 82 years old. He was born on January 1, 1900 in Zghorta. This Historian and Philosopher published several books. He studied in the Antoura College before majoring in law from the French Faculty of Law in Beirut. The country lost a lawyer, a deputy, a minister, and one of its greatest historians. 18 Hundreds of women, elderly persons, men and children were massacred in the Palestinian camps of Sabra and Chatila. This ignominious act shook the world. Some militias were accused of committing the crime. Nevertheless, as usual in Lebanon, the identity of the murderers remained unknown while the victims were all innocent persons. . 21 Amine Gemayel was elected President of the Lebanese Republic, while the Lebanese army took in charge the Palestinian camps. 24 The French contingent of the multinational force arrived in Beirut; the Americans and Italians were on their way too. 26 The Army occupied the positions evacuated by the Israelis in Beirut. 29 The Marines disembarked in Beirut while the Israelis were achieving the evacuation of the capital. 4 An assault was perpetrated against an Israeli bus in Aley killing seven persons. 5 In retaliation to the Alley assault, the Israelis launched a raid on Dahr El Baydar and the Upper-Metn. 7 Prime Minister Chafic Wazzan announced the creation of the first government to the new presidential mandate. It included: Chaffic Wazzan: Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Elie Salem: Vice-President of the Council, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minster of Emigrants. Roger Chikhani: Minister of Justice and Information Pierre El Khoury: Minster of Public Works, Transports, and Agriculture Ibrahim Halaoui: Minister of Economy, Trade, and Tourism Bahaeddine Bsat: Minister of Hydraulic and Electric Resources, Housing, and Cooperatives Adnan Mroueh : Minister of Health, Social Affairs, and Labor Issam Khoury: Minister of National Defense, National Education and Fine Arts Georges Frem: Minister of Posts and Telecommunications, Industry and Oil Adel Hamiyeh : Minster of Finance 9 The situation in the capital was back to its normal course of action, since the policemen were addressing citations to drivers, the campaign against squatters was intensified, and the confiscation of weapons continued. 13 The Israelis interfered in Kfarmatta to end the violent conflict between the Phalange Party and the SPP.. 15 The killing attempts continued against Israeli soldiers. A car bomb exploded in Bhamdoun killing 3 persons, of which two were Israeli, and injuring 10 others. 18 Amine Gemayel delivered a moving speech at the United Nations. The chief of State addressed a message to the international community calling all parties to go beyond ideologies and dogmatism and to restore peace in the Middle East. He concluded saying 'Give us peace and we will astound the world once again.' 19 After the triumphal welcome he received in New York and at the United Nation, President Gemayel realized some progress during his meetings with the U.S. President Ronald Reagan, towards a permanent resolution of the Lebanese crisis. 20 Amine Gemayel met with French President Franois Mitterand. 21 The Chief of State visited Rome. 22 Having received and international back up to his efforts, the President of the Republic focused on boosting the negotiations to reach a comprehensive resolution of the Lebanese question. The short-term goals were: an agreement on the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Lebanon and an increase in the size of the Multinational Force, as well as an extension of its area of deployment which was currently limited to Beirut and its close surroundings. 2 Sister Theresa arrived in Beirut for a short visit of several days. She offered housing to 37 young Lebanese, providing them with everything they needed. 16 The Israelis reinforced their control in the Chouf and Aley. The leaders in the mountain called upon Amine Gemayel who seemed determined to speed the settlement of the crisis in the Druze-Christian regions. 20 The Lebanese Forces and the Progressive Socialist Party militiamen started a merciless war in the cazas of Aley and the Chouf. 21 In a message addressed to the nation, the chief of State declared : 'Lebanon will recover its independence by all means.' 1 The leader of the Progressive Socialist Party, Walid Joumblatt escaped a killing attempt that resulted in 3 dead and 42 injuries. 2 A wide meeting in Baabda reached an agreement on the creation of a Lebanese strike force in charge of reestablishing order and security in Aley and the Chouf. 9 Meanwhile, the situation deteriorated in Tripoli where violent clashes killed 18 persons and wounded 90 others. 18 In a televised declaration, the US president Ronald Reagan reiterated that 'All the occupying forces should leave Lebanon.' 20 The situation flared up in Aley and the fights claimed another 19 victims. 28 Israeli-Lebanese negotiations started in Lebanon. But Israel was still sticking to its position.
1983 3 Tension was at its peak in Tripoli. A shell storm hit the city making 20 deaths and several wounded. The combats opposed the Popular Resistance to the Arab Strike Force. 5 Pope John-Paul II appointed the maronite Patriarch of Antioch and the East, Bishop Antonios Boutros Khoreiche, Cardinal. Bishop Khoreiche was born on the 20th of September, 1907 at Ain Ebel in Southern Lebanon. After having studied at Saint Joseph University, he was ordained priest on April 12, 1930. He became Bishop on October 1950 and Archbishop of Saida in 1957. On April 11, 1974, he became patriarchal vicar general of Bkerkeh. Following the death of Patriarch Meouchi on January 11, 1975, the synod elected Bishop Khoreiche on February 3, 1975, after a conclave of 15 days. 6 The Israeli forces pursued their combing operations in the sectors of Laylaki, Kfarchima and Choueifat. The 'Marines' sent a severe warning to the Israeli army. 10 In order to accelerate the Israeli-Lebanese negotiations, the American President Ronal Reagan rushed Philip Habib to the region. 11 Bombs fell on Hadeth and Baabda. For the first time since the Israeli invasion in June 1982 and since the Multinational Force arrived in Beirut, the guns came closer to the capital as bombs fell on the suburbs of Hadeth, Baabda, Kfarchima and Bsaba killing 2 and injuring 9. 13 The sixth Lebanese-American-Israeli round of negotiations took place in Kyriet Shmona, Israel. Five points were put on the agenda: 1- Ending the state of war. 2- Reaching security arrangements. 3- Establishing a framework for mutual relations, including matters such as liaison, and end of propaganda... 4- Completing the withdrawal program: conditions for the Israeli withdrawal within the context of a withdrawal of all foreign forces. 5- Giving eventual guarantees 15 The combats intensified in the mountain between the Lebanese Forces and the Progressive Socialist Party. Bombs fell in Broumana and close to Moukhtara. 23 The American envoy, Philip Habib headed back to Washington empty-handed. Israel continued to impose unacceptable conditions on Lebanon, notably concerning the set up of Israeli pre-alert stations on the Lebanese territory. 25 France granted more than 100 millions of French Francs as a back up for Hôtel-Dieu. The hospital was facing great financial difficulties. 28 39 persons were killed and tens of others were wounded following a car bomb explosion parked in front of the 'Fateh' headquarters in Chtaura. 30 A bomb storm fell on East Beirut. While a constructive beginning of the week was expected, mainly concerning the project of a disarmed and open 'Greater Beirut', blind violence hit again. Following the degradation of the situation in the mountain between the Lebanese Forces and the Progressive Socialist Party, mortar shells, Katiouchas and other Grad fell on East Beirut causing important material damages. 2 The aggressions didn't spare the Multinational Force. Reacting to the anti-French attacks, the President of the French Republic, Francois Mitterand, ordered the reinforcement of the French contingent in Lebanon. 4 The situation went out of control in the mountain as bombs fell on East Beirut. 5 A remotely controlled car bomb exploded killing 19 and injuring 136 in front of the Palestinian research center and the Libyan Jana agency, in Caracas street. 7 A 20-point security agreement to pacify the mountain was finally reached between the Lebanese Forces and the Druze, under Israeli aegis. 14 The Army deployed 3800 soldiers and officers in the East between Nahr El Mott, Dora and Hazmieh, by virtue of a decree granting it extended powers. 15 The Armenian Community in Lebanon gave a grandiose and emotional official farewell to its Patriarch H.S. Khoren 1st Catholicos of the house of Cilicie, dead at the age of 69. 16 A car bomb exploded in Antelias not far from a Phalange office. Once again, the civilians paid the price of this ferocity. 20 Even the weather seemed to conspire against Lebanon in the beginning of this year. The storm and the cold raging from the coast up to the peaks of Lebanon claimed several victims. 23 cadavers were discovered and tens of persons were reported missing in the region of Dahr El Baydar. Rescue teams had already succeeded in saving 200 persons; but tens of others, trapped in their cars or buried under the snow where they were attempting to find shelter, were fighting death. The final toll reached 60 deaths and tens of isolated villages. 23 The American envoy Philip Habib returned to Beirut to speed up the withdrawal process. 4 A Lebanese Army convoy was attacked near Baalbeck. 6 militaries were killed and 13 injured. The assailants were pro-Iranians fighters. 5 Rain and snow fell again on Lebanon, thus increasing the risks of flood as the streams and rivers, caused by the rain and the melting snow, were threatening to overflow. The State mobilized its entire means to prevent a catastrophe. 7 The State regained control over the fifth basin of the port. 9 At the summit of New Delhi, President Amine Gemayel pleaded Lebanon's cause in front of 95 nations. He declared that Lebanon pursued a triple objective in the negotiations: preserve the national consensus, safeguard the State's sovereignty, and maintain the country's credibility among the Arabs. 13 The negotiations that were taking place in Washington, in view of an Israeli troops withdrawal from Lebanon, seemed to have reached some progress. Back to Lebanon, an attack against an Israeli patrol in Jiyeh provoked the death of three soldiers. 16 14 American Marines and Italian bersaglieri were wounded by three attacks perpetrated in less than 12 hours. Washington and Rome declared however that the Multinational Force would continue its mission. The Lebanese Army launched a clean up operation in the Southern suburbs. 18 During his visit to the region, former American President, Jimmy Carter met with President Gemayel, while the negotiations were frozen binding the return of Philip Habib. These negotiations resumed on March 21. 26 Following troubles triggered by a series of arrests, the Army reinstated the calm in Bir El Abed. It was the first incident of this kind since the inception of 'Greater Beirut'. 4 Shiite leaders called for a sit-in South Lebanon. 6 The government decided to raise the salaries in the private sector: 10% up to 2500 LP, 9% raging from 2501 to 4000 LP, and 4% above 4000 LP. 13 General Moussa Kanaan was appointed new CEO of Télé-Liban. 13 The French soldiers of the Multinational Force dug out a 1000 kilos bomb dropped by an Israeli airplane during the summer of 1982 and buried next to a building. 15000 persons were evacuated from their homes. 17 The Israeli Minister of Defense, Moshe Arens considered that the Middle East peace process was not dead and that a peace agreement between Israel and Lebanon would be concluded in the near future. 18 A murderous attack was perpetrated against the United States embassy in Beirut. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack executed using a small truck loaded with explosives driven by a Kamikaze. The embassy's building was totally devastated, resulting in the death of 61 persons including 17 Americans. Two hours after the attack, President Gemayel arrived at the scene in order to supervise the rescue operations. 22 While President Reagan was still determined to reestablish security and freedom in Lebanon, Lawrence Eagleburger, the American under-secretary of State, arrived in Beirut to take back the remains of the American citizens killed during the attack against the American embassy. 26 The Phalangist militia handed over the alleged assassin of Bechir Gemayel, Habib Chartouni, to the Army. 28 As part of his trip to the Middle East, the Secretary of State, George Shultz made a quick stop in Lebanon. He visited the ruins of the American embassy and met with Lebanese officials. 29 Serge Lama gave his first recital at the Theatre du Liban. 1 While the American Secretary of Sate, George Shultz was undertaking a forcing to reach an agreement between Israel and Lebanon, the mountain went again on fire. The Lebanese Forces and the PSP resumed their combats. The bombardments reached the Kesrouan coastline. They continued in the days to follow causing tens of victims. 9 87 Soviet nationals were evacuated from Lebanon while the Lebanese Forces requested the closure of schools. The tension was at its highest. 14 The Council of Ministers approved unanimously the draft agreement with Israel which only needed to be signed. 17 The Lebanese-Israeli agreement was signed during two solemn ceremonies taking place simultaneously in Kyriat Shmona and in Khaldeh. The agreement sponsored by the United States was supposed to put an end to the state of war. 22 23 hostages were executed in the Chouf. Efforts intensified to avoid escalation. 3 An earthquake of 5.3 magnitude on the Richter scale provoked panic but caused no victims. 14 While the bombardments took a dangerous turn in the mountain as they reached residential areas, the Chamber of Deputies approved the ratification of the Mai 17 agreement with 62 votes against 2 and 4 abstentions. 16 Disguised armed elements fired on the crowd in Tripoli, killing 15 persons. The tensioned lasted several days in the capital of the North. 20 Lebanon lost one of its major poets. Nadia Tueni left behind her pages of pure beauty, eternal words, an immortal poetry, a Lebanon on fire, a tearful family, and inconsolable friends. 27 Violent combats were raging in the region of Mansouriet-Bhamdoun between the Lebanese Forces and the PSP militia. The bombs reached the Northern Metn. 29 Philip Habib undertook a new tour in the region. The Lebanese officials informed him in Beirut of their opposition to any partial Israeli withdrawal from the mountain. 5 The American Secretary of State arrived in Beirut as part of a new tour. 'Complete withdrawals should be executed according to a defined timetable', declared the US diplomat. 7 Prime Minister Chaffic Wazzan escaped from a killing attempt. A car bomb exploded on his way to his office in Sanayeh. 19 President Gemayel, accompanied by the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, began an eight-day official visit to the United States where he met with President Reagan. The meetings were centered on the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Lebanon. 21 The President of the A.U.B, David Dodge who was kidnapped on the 19th of July 1982, was released. The White House expressed its gratitude to Syria. 23 The National Salvation Front was born. It was run by Sleiman Frangieh, Rachid Karameh and Walid Joumblatt and was requesting the abrogation of the Mai 17 Israeli-Lebanese agreement. 5 While the new American envoy Robert McFarlane began a trip to the different capitals of the region, terrorism hit innocent civilians again. A car parked at the entrance of a mosque in Tripoli exploded killing 19 and injuring 70. 7 Blind terrorism continued to strike. A car bomb exploded in Baalbeck, killing 33 persons and injuring 133 others. 10 The political cleavage between the Lebanese authorities and the opposition was accentuated. Three ministers, Adel Hamiye, Adnan Mroueh and Pierre El Khoury were intercepted by militiamen, while on mission in the Chouf. They were released the next day. 21 The first signs of an imminent Israeli redeployment in the south of the Awali river multiplied. Lebanon urged the United States to intervene in order to delay this initiative. 28 Beirut witnessed four days of madness and bombardments during which the Army lost control of the situation in a matter of one day, in favor of the militiamen. 1 During the month of September, atrocious massacres were perpetrated against Christian and Druze civilians in the Chouf. 4 Taking the Lebanese authorities by surprise, the Israeli Army began its withdrawal from the Chouf and Aley leaving face to face the militia of the PSP and the LF in a merciless battle. The combats raged mainly around Bhamdoun, Souk El Gharb and Kabr Chmoun. A dramatic situation unfolded in the mountain where thousands of people were forced out of their homes. 30 000 people found temporary shelter in Deir El Kamar. The rehousing of the displaced persons caused a complicated problem for the officials. 18 Emir Magid Arslane died at the age of 79. Hero of the independence, deputy since 1931, and several times minister, Emir Magid became very early a true national leader, a perfect incarnation of the generation of men who have shaped the coexistence aspect of Lebanon. 19 The American warships pounded the anti-governmental forces in the mountain confirming the American support to the legal authority. 22 It was the turn of the French to react. The super-standards bombarded the artillery positions in Dhour Choueir while a bomb shower fell on Greater Beirut. 26 Prime Minister Chafic Wazzan presented the resignation of his government to the chief of State, who refused it. 7 A first exchange of hostages between the LF and the P.S.P was possible under the aegis of the four-party military commission. Furthermore, the commission succeeded in assuring the entry of a Red Cross convoy in Deir El Kamar where 25,000 refugees had found shelter. 12 Political confusion, frequent violations of the cease-fire, alarming threats were as many elements that favored monetary speculation in Beirut. The dollar registered a spectacular increase against the Lebanese pound reaching 515 L.P. 18 Violent artillery duels were taking place on the axis Aley-Souk El Gharb-Dahr El Wahch and in the Iqlim. The situation became uncontrollable. 23 Two attacks were perpetrated against the general headquarters of the American contingent next to the Beirut International Airport and against a position of the French contingent in Jnah. The double attack made 241 deaths and 60 injured among the Americans, and 58 deaths and 15 injured among the French. It was a true declaration of war to the political military and even physical presence of the West in Lebanon. 24 The French President Mitterand made a quick visit to Beirut and declared: ' We will stay'. 31 The dialog conference opened in Geneva. This national reconciliation conference represented the only hope for the Lebanese. 2 At the Geneva conference, the Mai 17 agreement was the main subject of debates. A Gemayel-Frangieh reconciliation took place. 4 Participants in the Geneva conference asked President Gemayel to undertake an Arab and occidental tour in order to attempt solving the problem of the May 17 agreement. 4 A car bomb exploded next to the Israeli headquarters in Tyr causing 29 deaths and 29 injured. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for this killing attempt. 6 The situation was dramatic in Tripoli. Inter-Palestinian fights claimed 500 deaths and 875 injured. 17 The French aviation hit pro-Iranian bases in Baalbeck. 20 An Israeli airplane was shut down by the D.C.A. in the Lebanese sky. 24 Six Israeli prisoners were exchanged against 4600 Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners. 25 A Syrian-Saudi agreement was reached in Damascus for the evacuation of Palestinians from Tripoli. 30 President Gemayel met with the American President at the White House. 1 Sheikh Halim Takieddine, Chief of the Druze religious law courts was assassinated; this triggered great emotions in political and religious spheres in Beirut. 4 The Syrian anti-air defense shut down two American airplanes and a pilot was captured. The positions of the Marines at the Beirut International Airport were bombarded. Eight Marines were killed. The American President was angry: 'We will retaliate if we are attacked again'. 5 150 kilos of hexogen exploded at Tarik Jdideh spreading terror, killing 16 persons and injuring 100. 8 A water tower exploded in the Bekaa and the flooding provoked a landslide that destroyed 10 houses and killed 20 persons. 14 The American battleship New Jersey entered into action and launched 11 bombs of 1500 kilos each against Syrian positions in Dahr El Baydar. 15 2500 Lebanese Forces fighters were evacuated from Deir El Kamar. 16 The Beirut International Airport, closed since November 30, was reopened to air traffic. 20 Yasser Arafat and 4300 Palestinians left Tripoli aboard Greek ships. 21 A truck bomb attack against the frigate post of the French contingent of the Multinational Force in Berjaoui killed one paratrooper and injured 16 others. Another 16 persons were killed and 84 were injured among the Lebanese civilians. 28 After three days marked by violent combats in the capital, the Army announced that it was controlling the camps of Sabra and Chatila.
1984 2 The year started like the previous one ended : everyone was talking about a new security plan for the mountain and the Southern suburbs of Beirut. Nevertheless, the fights continued intermittently in these regions between the Army and the Lebanese Forces on one side and the Progressive Socialist Party and Amal on the other. 4 A double Israeli raid in the region of Baalbeck caused tens of victims and buried many persons under the debris. In Beirut, the electric power was severely rationed by the EDL due to damaged installations in the Iqlim El Kharroub. The acts of resistance against the Israeli occupation continued in South Lebanon. Until the end of 1984, not a single day passed without one, two or three killing attempts perpetrated against Israeli troops or the local militias that they created. 9 An anti-French killing attempt at the Résidence des Pins killed a paratrooper and wounded two others. Attacks against US and French troops of the Multinational Force continued until their departure in March. 12 One person was killed and many others were wounded in Achrafieh in a blind bombardment of residential areas. These bombings continued until July 4, causing thousands of deaths and injuries. Meanwhile, the dollar broke a new record in Beirut, reaching 5.55 LP. 15 Ships from the sixth US fleet were positioned off Beirut. They were retaliating to the bombing of Marines' headquarters in the capital. 16 Saad Haddad, commander of the Army of Free Lebanon, died from a generalized cancer. He was 47 years old and was buried in his birthplace, Marjeyoun. 16 Blind bombardments killed 16 persons and wounded 75 others in Beirut. Anxiety and fear prevailed. Schools and hospitals received their daily lot of bombs, amid international indifference. Panic reached the Lebanese stock exchange market where the Dollar amounted almost for six Lebanese Pounds. 18 The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the killing attempt that cost the life of Malcolm Kerr, President of the American University in Beirut, shot in front of his office. 22 Walid Joumblatt, president of the Progressive Socialist Party, requested the resignation of the Lebanese government. 2 The schools closed their doors in the Eastern sector of the capital due to the blind shelling of Beirut and its suburbs. 5 President Gemayel announced his intention to form a national union government and presented a program of 8 points to save the country. He also convoked a new conference for national reconciliation in Geneva on February 27. The resignation of the Wazzan government presented on September 26, 1983, was finally accepted. 6 In a matter of hours, Amal took control over West Beirut. The capital was heavily bombed, while the Army gave up the control of the Western sector of the Capital to Amal and to the Islamic militias. 8 The ' New Jersey ', the most powerful battleship in the world from the 6 US fleet, bombed for several hours anti-governmental positions in the mountain. 9 Foreign diplomats and nationals were evacuated form the Western regions where anarchy prevailed. 11 French porpoises and Internal Security forces took in charge the Museum crossing point. 14 Amal and PSP met in Khaldeh, while only Souk El Gharb was still controlled by the Army in the mountain. 15 Mechref and Damour fell under the control of the PSP, while violent combats raged around Souk El Gharb, the last obstacle in the mountain. 17 The Marines withdrew from Beirut. The Italian contingent of the Multinational Force was soon to follow. The capital was left on its own. 29 President Amine Gemayel visited Damascus. The observers expected a normalization soon after. Indeed, the Syrian President approved the opening of new round Israeli-Lebanese negotiations. 5 The Wazzan government met under the presidency of Gemayel and abrogated the Israeli-Lebanese agreement of May 17. A new reconciliation conference was to be held on the 12th of March in Lausanne. 12 The Lausanne conference began and lasted until March 20. The observers considered it a camouflaged failure. The participants decided to execute a security plan, stop slanderous campaigns, create a constituent assembly, and resume the dialog under the patronage of the chief of State. 22 The PSP, backed up by Amal, forced the Mourabitun out of Beirut. 25 It was the French contingent's turn to leave Beirut while the Eastern regions remained the target of blind and murderous bombardments. 28 While a deluge of fire fell on residential areas killing 26 persons and wounding 148 others, 40 French observers arrived in Beirut to supervise the cease-fire. The high political and military committee created during the Lausanne conference held its first meeting in Baabda. 4 The retired General Antoine Lahd took his functions as head of the South Lebanon Army (SLA) created and financed by Israel. This new militia replaced Saad Haddad's Army of Free Lebanon. Artillery duels continued in Beirut and in the mountain, making the month of April one of the worst months in the Lebanese crisis. In Tripoli, the confrontations between the Islamic Unification Movement and the Arab Democratic Party continued violently for several months. 18 The forces disengagement plan was to be applied on the demarcation line in Beirut, in the suburbs, and in the mountain. An interposition force of 1,8000 men and French observers would separate the fighters. 19 An agreement was signed during the new Assad-Gemayel summit in Damascus. It included the following points: forming a national union government, consolidating of the cease-fire, and reorganizing the Army. 26 Rachid Karameh, who was in charge of forming the national union government, started his parliamentary consultations.(bio) 30 The new national union government was as follows: Rachid Karameh: President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Adel Osseirane: Minister of Defense and Agriculture Nabih Berri: Minsiter of Hydroelectric resources and Justice Camille Chamoun: Minster of Finance, Housing, and Cooperatives Pierre Gemayel: Minster of Posts and Telecommunications, Health and Social Affairs. Walid Joumblatt: Minister of Public Works, and Tourism Selim Hoss: Minister of Labor and National Education Joseph Skaff: Minister of Information Abdallah Racy: Minister of Interior Victor Cassir: Minister of Economy and Trade and Minister of Industry and Oil 5 A new round of murderous violence killed 22 persons and wounded 107 others. The bombardments reached the Baabda Palace, forcing the organizers of a peace walk to express national dissatisfaction, to cancel the event. 14 The Greek Orthodox school of Notre-Dame de l'Annonciation in Achrafieh was bombed, killing one student and wounding 23 others. All schools were shut in protest against this barbarian act. 17 In the camp of Ain El Heloueh, the Israelis dynamited 70 houses and arrested 150 persons. 28 The US embassy in Beirut announced that it will open a temporary office in East Beirut. It also confirmed that extremists were preparing an anti-American attack in Beirut. 7 It was impossible to put an end to the blind shelling. No one, neither a national union government, nor a 4-party military commission, was able to stop the bombardment of the residential areas which started 24 hours ago and had caused 5 dead and 37 injured persons so far. 8 16 French observers positioned on the 888 hill and at Kalaat El Hosn in the mountain. 11 This is one of the most violent days since 1976. No words are enough to describe the ongoing butchery. 90 persons lost their lives and 353 were wounded on this single day. 12 While Lebanon was burying its dead, the Parliament voted the confidence by 53 votes against 15, and 3 abstentions. The Chamber extended its mandate for 2 years. 18 As a result of marathon debates launched by Khaddam in Bickfaya, Gemayel, Karameh, Berri and Joumblatt agreed on a global security plan. 23 54 days after its formation, the Karameh government adopted a new security plan as well as a new defense law. A military council comprising six members was created and Michel Aoun was appointed commander in chief of the Army. 27 The Israeli aviation and navy bombed the Rabbits Island off Tripoli. 15 fishermen were injured. 2 A rocket attack hit the offices of l'Orient-Le-Jour causing serious damages. 4 The Army was deployed in Greater Beirut. The crossing points were reopened, thus unifying the Eastern and Western sectors of the Capital. 7 The parents of kidnapped and disappeared persons demonstrated and blocked the Museum axis. 9 The Beirut International Airport and the Port also reopened. They had been closed since February 6. 12 Violent confrontations opposed the Marada, President Frangieh's militia, to the Syrian Nationalist Party. 14 Talal Salman, chief editor of the newspaper As Safir, was seriously injured by a killing attempt. The Press went on strike for 24 hours to protest against this incident. 16 The Marada and the Syrian Nationalist Party signed an agreement in Damascus, putting an end to the 'war in the North'. 20 An rocket attack was perpetrated against the Soviet embassy in Mazraa. The 'organization of the sharp sword', an unknown organization, claimed responsibility for the attack. 21 A Lebanese hijacker captured an MEA airplane connecting Abou-Dhabi to Beirut, to protest against the Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon. He surrenders to the authorities after harsh negotiations. The airplane had 138 passengers and 9 crewmembers aboard. 22 Walid Joumblatt agreed on the return of Christians to the Chouf and Aley. 25 In Tripoli, a violent battle opposed Islamists from Sheikh Said Chaabane's Islamic Unification Movement to the Arab Democratic Party's Red Knights. A deluge of metal and fire hit the capital of the North. These fights killed 15 persons and injured 60 others. 25 The local authorities decided to close an Israeli liaison bureau located in Dbayeh, the last link between the two countries. 28 'There is no more East or West', declared the commander of Beirut. The unification of the capital seemed to have succeeded. 1 A catastrophe was avoided at the Beirut International Airport where an Air France Boeing 737, hijacked during its flight from Frankfurt to Paris, was authorized to land in Beirut. The negotiations with the Lebanese authorities failed and the engine flew back amid general confusion. It almost hit several firefighter vehicles that were parked across the runway in order to prevent the airplane from moving. 13 The exchange rate of the dollar reached 6.20 LP. 21 It was almost hell in Tripoli, as combats continued between the Islamic Unification Movement and the Arab Democratic Party. 54 deaths and 150 injuries were reported during the 48 hours of fight. 23 The Army's chief of staff, General Nadim Hakim and eight of his companions were killed in a helicopter accident that departed from Ehden in the North. An investigation commission concluded that it was a simple accident. 29 Pierre Gemayel, head of the Phalange Party and Minister of Posts and Telecommunications and Health died from a heart attack. An official three-day mourning was announced, as well as a general one-day closure. (bio) 4 Joseph Hachem was appointed Minister of Health and Posts and Telecommunications in replacement of Pierre Gemayel. Malek Salam was appointed president of the Council for Development and Reconstruction. The mandate of Michel El Khoury, Governor of the Central Bank, was extended. 5 The Minister Selim El Hoss escaped, one more time, from a car bomb killing attempt in Raoucheh. 6 At the United Nations, the United States vetoed a Lebanese draft resolution submitted to the Security Council. This draft resolution requested from Israel, the 'occupying force', to respect civil rights in South Lebanon. 16 The fraud scandal at the baccalaureate exams repeated itself. The exams were cancelled in eight centers in West Beirut. 17 The ministerial 'conclaves' started in Bickfaya in presence of the chief of State. On that same day, Brian Urqhart, United Nations Assistant Secretary General, arrived to Beirut to prepare the Lebanese-Israeli negotiations regarding an Israeli withdrawal from Southern Lebanon. 20 A car bomb exploded next to the US embassy in Aoukar. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack that caused 11 dead and 96 injured. In Sohmor in the West of the Bekaa, the Army of South Lebanon opened fire on a crowd gathered on the place of the village, killing 24 persons and injuring 96. 28 Richard Murphy, the American under-secretary of State visited Beirut as part of a regional trip in preparation for the Lebanese-Israeli negotiations. 15 The participants in a round-table on Lebanon held in Lausane concluded that '15 billion dollars spread out on 10 years were needed for the reconstruction of Lebanon.' An international association comprising important persons from the world of economics and finance organized this meeting. 2 The increase of the dollar took dramatic proportions. The green bill exceeded 8 Lebanese Pounds. The President of the Republic held a meeting in Baabda to deal with this crisis. As a result, a series of measures were taken to discourage speculators from contributing to the rise of the Dollar, and put some order in the country's economy. 9 Rachid Karameh delivered a speech at the General Assembly of the United Nations, in which he insisted on the necessity of the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Lebanon. The Prime Minister reiterated his government's attachment to the application of all the resolutions of the Security Council, calling for an unconditional Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon. Nevertheless, the American President Ronald Reagan refused to meet with Karameh, for lack of time as he said. 9 Walid Joumblatt announced in Beirut the birth of a new coalition, the 'National Democratic Front', grouping, besides the PSP, the Communist Party, the Baas, the Syrian Nationalist Party, and the Arab Socialist Union. 16 Hussein El Husseini was elected speaker of the Chamber by 41 votes against 28 votes in favor of his predecessor, Kamel El Assaad. 31 The United Nations Secretary General, Javier Perez de Cuellar, convoked a Lebanese-Israeli conference to be held on November 5 in Nakoura under the aegis of the United Nations. The negotiations aimed at making security arrangements for the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon. 7 A new round of Lebanese-Israeli negotiations started in Nakoura, 8 months after the abrogation of the May 17 agreement. These negotiations resumed on November 15. But deep disagreements appeared regarding the roles of the Lebanese Army, the South Lebanon Army and the UNIFL. 14 The Council of Ministers decided to charge the Military Council with the responsibility of deploying the Army from Tripoli to the Awali river. 25 The Army took control of Beirut, where 6000 soldiers deployed in the capital but without really controlling the situation. 3 Guns were still echoing in the Iqlim. 7 Fights were reported downtown causing the Ring to close. 11 The dollar exceeded 9 Lebanese Pounds. 13 The Israelis launched a wide repression operation in South Lebanon. 3,000 men searched the region for members of the Resistance and arrested several of them. 15 The Army's deployment plan between Madfoun and the Awali river as well as in the Iqlim El Kharroub was finally executed. The entire population went on strike in South Lebanon to protest against the military operation of December 13. 20 The Army deployed its troops in Tripoli. 21 A car bomb killed five persons and wounded 30 others, including 19 children in Ras El Metn. 29 The parents of hostages divided the capital in two in a protest action.
1985 1 It is a bad beginning of the year for the Lebanese. Beirut was still divided in two, the problem of kidnapped and disappeared persons was unsolved, the fighting continued in the mountain between the Army and the PSP. In South Lebanon, the assault-reprisal cycle continued. 3 Eric Wehrli, the Swiss chargé d'affaires, was kidnapped in West Beirut. He was later released on January 7 by Amal. The dollar reached 9.10 Lebanese Pounds. 4 A commission was created, including the Lebanese Front, the Progressive Socialist Party, Amal, the Syrian Nationalist Party, and parents of the hostages. The crossing points between the two sectors of the capital were reopened while the plan for the Iqlim was halted because of the conflict between the Progressive Socialist Party and the Lebanese Front. 6 The 12th round of the Israeli-Lebanese negotiations in Nakoura started. 8 The security plan for the coastal road and the Iqlim El Kharroub was finally put into execution. The Internal Security Forces started their deployment in these regions. 11 A bomb exploded in Mazraa in front of the Bank of Beirut and the Arab Countries, killing 3 persons and wounding 31 others. 12 The army deployed on the coastal road South of Beirut and in the Iqlim EL Kharroub after the withdrawal of the Lebanese Forces and the PSP militiamen. The government appointed Edmond Naim Governor of the Central Bank, Michel Samaha CEO of Télé Liban, Mohammed Beydoun president of the Council of the South, and Ayoub Hemayed General Director of the Information. 14 The Israeli government decided to withdraw its army from South Lebanon progressively. 19 Armed confrontations and artillery duels on the axes Kfarchima-Choueifat and Aitate-Souk El Gharb, extended to the residential areas. Four persons were killed and seven others wounded by shells that fell on the regions of Beit-Mery, Bsous, Ain Saadeh and their surroundings. 21 Moustapha Saad, leader of the Nasserist Popular Organization, was seriously wounded in Saida by a car bomb that killed his daughter. 24 The negotiations in Nakoura were suspended sine die after the two parties refused to moderate their positions. 26 Selim El Hoss, Minister of Education and Labor, resigned from office. Efforts were made to convince him to review his decision. Indeed, he withdrew his resignation the next day. 1 An assault against a mosque in Tripoli caused eight deaths and 66 injuries. 4 Nothing could stop the dollar from rising. For the first time, the green bill was exchanged for over 15 Pounds on the Beirut stock market while the French Franc was quoted at 1.55 Pounds. The Lebanese authorities requested help from Saudi Arabia and asked Rafic Hariri to intercede with King Fahd to grant Lebanon 500 million dollars to boost the economy. 7 Crewmembers of a Cyprus Airways Boeing were held hostages for 5 hours at the Beirut International Airport, by armed elements from Hay El Sellom. As a result, the company suspends its flights to Beirut. 17 The army made a triumphal entrance in Saida. The transition was smooth and no incident followed the Israeli departure. 17 President Gemayel made an unexpected visit to Saida where he was warmly acclaimed. The next day, Islamist women in chador demonstrated in Saida and burnt a Lebanese flag. They also destroyed bars and cafZs, and chanted slogans against the legal authorities. 23 A security inspector hijacked a Beirut-Paris MEA flight. A passenger was killed and 13 others were injured. The hijacker had wage claims. 4 A bomb attack against the Husseiniyeh in Maarakeh killed 11 persons, including two leaders of the Amal movement, and wounded 28 others. 6 The Lebanese Pound reached a new record, with over a 19 Pounds drop in value. The pound had lost half its value compared to the dollar since the beginning of the year. 8 A mass killing took place in Bir El Abed. A car bomb killed 62 persons and wounded 200 others, including a large number of women, children and elderly persons. 9 Thanks to Syria's intervention, opposition ministers Berri and Joumblatt met in Bickfaya with Presidents Gemayel and Karameh. The smoothing of the relations led to a promise of a cooling down on the Souk El Gharb front. During the meeting, the bombs were continuing to fall on Hazmieh and Achrafieh and kidnappings of innocent civilians were still taking place on various crossing roads in Beirut. 11 The Israelis attacked Zrariyeh claiming tens of victims and huge destructions. Many persons were also arrested. 12 The United States vetoed the adoption by the United Nations Security Council of a Lebanese resolution that condemns Israeli actions against civilians in South Lebanon. 16 The regional director of the Associated Press, Terry Anderson, was kidnapped in West Beirut. Many other US and British nationals had already been kidnapped. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for these acts. 19 A second round of fights between the Lebanese Forces, the Army, and the local militias killed 7 persons and injured 30 others East of Saida. 22 The Islamic Jihad kidnapped the French vice-consul, Marcel Fontaine, and another diplomat, Marcel Carton, in Beirut. 1 The region of Saida was heavily bombarded. Artillery duels opposed the Lebanese Forces on the one hand, to local antigovernment militias and army units that don't follow the commandment of Yarzeh on the other. 11 The Israelis left Nabatyeh, followed by the Resistance. 16 West Beirut plunged back into panic and street combats, with the outburst of abrupt confrontations between Amal and the Mourabitun, killing 2 persons and wounding 16 others. 24 After 40 days of combats, the Lebanese Forces fighters started to withdraw from Saida. The Israelis continued their withdrawal in the West of the Bekaa region; only 12% of the Lebanese territory remained under their control. The Lebanese Army settled in the evacuated areas but the PSP positioned in the Barouk while the South Lebanon Army took position in Jezzine. 26 The Islamic-Progressive militias rushed into Christian villages next to Saida. Thousands of families were forced out of their homes. Tens of Christian villages in the Iqlim El Kharroub and East of Saida were looted, vandalized, and burned. The State was more powerless than ever, the Lebanese Army being unable to stop the massacres. 29 The Israelis withdrew from Tyr and the Lebanese army replaced them. 30 It was hell in Beirut. Insane bombing continued in both sectors of the capital, crossing points had been closed illustrating the gravity of the situation, while 20,000 Christians from South Lebanon took refuge in the region of Marjeyoun. 2 The Lebanese overseas protested against the recent events in Lebanon. They occupied the Lebanese embassies and consulates in the West, in order to attract the attention of the public opinion to the fate of those living in South Lebanon. 7 29 persons were killed and 89 were wounded in a crazy night of shelling in Beirut. All what the inhabitants could do was to suppress their despair, hide in buckers, and thank god the next day for being still alive. 9 The executive committee of the Lebanese Forces elected Elie Hobeika president and Samir Geagea chief of staff. 11 In a message addressed to the United Nations, John Paul II begged: 'Do not abandon Lebanon.' 20 After 20 hours of ferocious combats, Amal and the sixth brigade took control of the Palestinian camps. 22 A car bomb spread terror in Sin El Fil, killing 30 persons and wounding 172 others. Tens of houses and stores were also destroyed. 28 As part of the harassment to which were subject foreign nationals, the director of the American University Hospital, David Jacobsen, was kidnapped while he was leaving the Medical Gate. 6 Israel officially completed its withdrawal from South Lebanon. Nevertheless, several Israeli soldiers continued to occupy the Security Zone. In reality, the last Israeli armored vehicle left Lebanon on June 10 after an accident in which Israel lost 654 deaths and 3890 injured, and four disappeared soldiers. 11 A Boeing of the Alia airlines was hijacked by a suicide commando called Moussa Sadr, requesting the evacuation of all Palestinian fighters from Beirut. The hostages were freed the next day and the airplane was dynamited at the Beirut International Airport. 14 A car bomb exploded next to a checkpoint belonging to the sixth brigade in Jnah causing 13 dead and 36 injured. 17 The Damascus agreement put an end to the Camps War that caused, in four weeks, 700 deaths and 2,500 injured. 20 As part of the war between Sunni Islamists and the Arab Democratic Party, a car bomb exploded in Tripoli killing 50 persons and wounding 110 others. 27 Elias Sarkis, former President of the Lebanese Republic, died at 61 years old. He was suffering from a disease that paralyzed his lymphatic and nervous system. Grandiose funerals were organized in Mar Takla church in Hazmieh. 1 Following the hostages' crisis, Washington called for the boycott of the Beirut International Airport. 9 An agreement between all Moslem leaders was concluded in Damascus to pacify West Beirut, while fights were raging in Tripoli. 10 An Israeli raid on the camps of Nahr El Bared and Beddaoui caused 15 deaths and 50 wounded. 30 Syria delivered 46 tanks to the Amal movement while surprise bombardments continued in Beirut and civilians were still being kidnapped on the crossing points. 31 President Sleiman Frangieh and Elie Hobeika were reconciled. 2 The Israeli aviation destroyed the headquarters of the Syrian Nationalist Party in Chtaura after the multiplication of car bombs in South Lebanon. 6 The Front of National Unity, a coalition of West Beirut parties, created a month earlier in Damascus, was born. 11 Greater Beirut was violently bombarded with heavy artillery. Sixteen civilians were killed and 60 others were wounded. 14 A new massacre occurred in Sad El Bauchrieh where a car bomb exploded causing 12 dead and 115 injured persons. This explosion was intended to maintain a climate of insecurity in the country, making the largest number of victims, and sinking the population's morale to its lowest level. 17 A car bomb in front of the Melki supermarket in Antelias killed 40 persons and wounded 122 others. Most of the victims died carbonized or asphyxiated. 19 Death was moving around in West Beirut. Two car bombs exploded at Caracol-Druze and Ghobeireh within half-an-hour, resulting in 29 dead and a hundred injured. Several Christians were kidnapped on various crossing points right after the explosions. 20 Shells fell on Beirut in each and every neighborhood. Thirty persons were killed and 117 wounded, while tens of houses were destroyed. A car bomb exploded in Tripoli killing 48 persons and injuring 100 others. 21 The bombings destroyed two MEA airplanes. The Beirut International Airport was closed to traffic. 23 The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation (the Lebanese Forces TV) was inaugurated to celebrate the third anniversary of the election of Bechir Gemayel as President of the Republic. 27 Tens of persons were kidnapped at crossing points. Amal and the Lebanese Forces exchanged 22 hostages on August 29. 30 The Lebanese Forces ended their military presence in Zahleh and closed their offices in the town. 3 Beirut was cut into two. There were severe shortages of bread and gas. 4 14 dead and 74 injured persons were reported in Zahleh as a result of a car bomb explosion. Three days later, the Syrians invaded the town. 5 Violent combats opposed Amal and the PSP in West Beirut. 10 Syrian observers tried to calm the situation in the Palestinian camp of Bourj Brajneh. Violent combats had opposed Amal to the Palestinians in this camp, causing 40 deaths and 120 injuries. 12 An isolated incident degenerated into confrontations between the Lebanese Forces militiamen in the Eastern neighborhoods. 16 In Tripoli, ten soldiers from the Lebanese Army were killed and 35 others wounded by shells that fell on the Bahjat Ghanem barracks. 18 Presidents Chamoun, Frangieh, and Helou met in Smar-Jbeil in order to launch wide Christian sittings. 24 A first Lebanese Forces-Amal-PSP meeting was held in Damascus. 28 Another dramatic day in Beirut and its surroundings where artillerymen killed 32 persons and wounded 76 others. 29 The Beirut International Airport was bombed and some installations were destroyed. 30 Three diplomats from the Soviet embassy and the chancellery's doctor were kidnapped in West Beirut. One of them was killed later, while the three others were released on October 30. Twelve Western nationals remained held hostages by Islamist organizations. 12 The kidnappings continued in Beirut. 19 President Gemayel went to New York to plead the Lebanese cause at the UN. He affirmed that 'the internal conflict in Lebanon is resolved', and invited the United Nations to help the Lebanese resolve the external aspect of the war. President Gemayel emphasized the necessity of distinguishing the Lebanese issue from the Middle East issue. He met, among others, with De Cuellar and Shultz. 28 As part of the reconciliation efforts between the Lebanese Forces and Damascus, Syria released 31 Lebanese Forces militiamen. 28 Saida's Antiquities Service discovered interesting archeological vestiges in limited excavations in the region of Hlaliyeh. 10 Terry Waite, the envoy of the Archbishop of Canterbury, arrived in Beirut to negotiate with the Islamic Jihad the release of the four US hostages. He had a tough and lengthy mission that required a second visit to Beirut on December 20. 13 The Eastern regions went on strike to protest against the suicide truck killing attempt perpetrated against the leaders of the Lebanese Front gathered in the St Georges convent in Awkar. The assault caused 4 dead and 36 wounded, including Elie Karameh, Edouard Honein, and Fouad Ephrame Boustany who were slightly injured. 16 It is in front of 15,000 persons including 2,000 Lebanese gathered in the St Peter basilica in Rome that Sister Rafka Rayes, a maronite from Lebanon, was declared blessed by Pope John Paul II. Sister Rafka was born in 1832 in Hamlaya. 19 For the first time since 1982, a duel between Israeli and Syrian airplanes took place in the Lebanese sky. Two Syrian Migs were shot down. The Syrians decided after this incident to install Sam-2 ground-air missiles on the Syrian-Lebanese border. 20 Violent combats opposed Amal and the PSP in West Beirut. Five days of hell followed for the residents of this region. 65 persons were killed and 250 were wounded. 3 For the first time since the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, the Israeli Army carried out an important military operation outside the Security Zone. A base belonging to Ahmed Jibril's Popular Palestinian Liberation Front was destroyed in the Region of Rachaya El Wadi. 11 A new security plan was executed in West Beirut. The army and the Internal Security Forces were controlling the public order, with the help of the Amal-PSP military police. 28 The Lebanese Forces, the PSP and Amal signed an agreement in Damascus, putting an end to the Lebanese war.
1986 1 It is a bad beginning of the year for the Lebanese Forces. A conflict emerged within the party, causing exchanges of rockets and gunshots in Zalka and Nahr El Mott. Ten persons were killed or wounded. The signature by Elie Hobeika of the tripartite agreement in Damascus, triggered the fight. 13 13 hours of combats and military operations opposed the Phalangists, followers of the President of the Republic, to Elie Hobeika and his men. The Army intervened to separate the belligerents. 14 The eleventh Gemayel-Assad summit was a total failure. 15 In eight hours of violent fights, 100 persons were killed, and the chief of staff of the Lebanese Forces, Samir Geagea, evinced Elie Hobeika sending him into exile. 16 Confrontations started on the Northern Metn front. The shells kept falling intermittently during several months on Bickfaya, the Metn and the Kesrouan. The population in these regions was living in the fear of car bombs and blind bombardments. 21 A car bomb exploded in Furn El Chebback. An entire street of over 100 meters was devastated, 30 persons were killed, and 132 others were wounded. 23 The Lebanese Pound registered a fast decline. A new record was broken when the Dollar was being exchanged for 24 Lebanese Pounds. 26 The Lebanese radical opposition called President Gemayel to resign. 1 A delegation from the Union of Independent Maronite Deputies visited Damascus in an effort to reestablish the dialogue between the Christians and Syria. 3 Death hit once again. A bomb hidden in a suitcase exploded in Jdeideh killing four persons and wounding 22 others. 12 A bomb exploded in Ain El Remmaneh next to the entrance of a building where a Phalange Party office was located. Two persons lost their lives and 17 others were injured. 18 President Gemayel met French President Miterrand and Pope John Paul II in the Vatican. He also met King Hassan II of Morocco. 24 Islamists killed a communist leader, Souheil Tawileh, in Mazraa. Four days earlier, another communist leader, Khalil Nous, was assassinated. Meanwhile, terrorist-killing attempts continued in the Eastern regions. A car bomb exploded on the Salomeh intersection, causing 4 dead and 16 injured. 4 Artillery duels were raging between the Eastern and Western sectors of the capital, killing tens of persons, and wounding hundreds. 5 The Islamic Jihad announced the execution of Michel Seurat. The French sociologist was kidnapped on the 22nd of May at the same time as the journalist Jean-Paul Kauffmann. 9 The black series continued. Terrorism hit this time Jeetaoui where a car bomb killed 3 persons and wounded 40 others. 21 A sad gift for mother's day in the mountain: shells fell on 20 villages in the Metn and the Kesrouan. Violent combats were reported in the mountain, killing 3 and injuring 21 persons on this 'usual' day. 26 A car stuffed with explosives and inflammable material exploded in Achrafieh, while a timing bomb ravaged a Phalangist office in Tahouita. Together, the two explosions killed 10 persons and wounded 80 others. The bombardment of the Eastern regions continued in the meantime. 27 After the Fatah claimed responsibility for the Katioucha shots on Kiryat Shmona, the Israeli aviation attacked the camps of Mieh Mieh and Ain El Heloueh. Ten persons were killed and 30 others were wounded. 29 The dollar jumped from 19 to 23 Lebanese Pounds. 4 The 45 French observers in charge of observing the dividing lines in Beirut and in the Mountain, left Lebanon. Their departure was probably due to political changes in France. 8 Suddenly, horror hit the heart of Jounieh. A car bomb exploded killing 11 persons and wounding 89 others, spreading an indescribable panic and ravaging four residential buildings. 9 A French teacher from the Collge Protestant Franais, Michel Brian, was kidnapped in Hamra, thus increasing the number of French nationals held hostages in Lebanon to 9. 10 There are no limits for barbarian crimes. A car bomb exploded in Saida killing three persons and wounding 35 others. 11 The French teacher, Michel Brian, kidnapped on April 7, was released in the Bekaa. Another Irish teacher, Brian Kenaan was kidnapped in West Beirut. To protest against the kidnapping of foreign professors, schools and universities in West Beirut went on strike on April 14. 17 The British teachers John Leigh Douglas and Philip Ralph Patfield, kidnapped on the 28th of March 1986, were executed and their bodies were thrown on the Roueissat-Sofar road. A cameraman, John McCarthy, was kidnapped on the Beirut International Airport road. An extremist organization announced the hanging of Alec Colett, a British journalist who was working at the UNRWA. The dead body of Peter Kilburn, librarian at the AUB, who was kidnapped on the 3rd of December 1984, was also found. Furthermore, the British embassy in Zokak EL Blatt was partially destroyed and burned by rocket shots. 19 The Maronite Church had a new Patriarch in the person of Mgr Nasrallah Sfeir. A triple task was waiting for him. He had to reinstate the authority of the church, clean up the inter-religious relations, and reconcile the executive power with Syria. 20 38 Westerners including 35 British left Beirut. By the end of April, all Western nationals had left West Beirut fearing to be kidnapped or killed. 21 A serious outburst of violence plunged Beirut and its surroundings back into the anguish of blind bombardments. 4 persons were killed and 53 were injured. 3 While the bombardments continued in Beirut and its suburbs, the army closed all crossing points for security reasons, except the road of Hadeth Mreyjeh. Beirut was cut into two. 8 Starting this date, Lebanon was on the black list of terrorist countries put together by the European Community ad hoc commission. This was due to the activist bases and kidnappings that were taking place in the country. 9 The opening of the airport of Halate caused discontent in the country. A few minutes after President Gemayel's airplane landed in Halate coming from a three-day trip in Tunisia, the airport was severely bombed. 10 The Syrian President Hafez El Assad examined the possibility of modifying the tripartite agreement signed in December 1985. This treaty was one of the fundamental causes of the political and military crisis that was ravaging the country since January 15. 15 A general strike was observed in universities and schools in West Beirut, to protest against repeated aggressions against teachers. 21 On the eve of the meeting in Dar El Fatwa between the Maronite Patriarch Nasrallah Sfeir and the Mufti of the Republic Sheikh Hassan Khaled, artillerymen unleashed their guns, killing 30 persons and wounding 60 others. The meeting was postponed. 23 A new car bomb exploded in Sin El Fil early in the morning, when the schools were opening their doors. Seven persons were killed, 111 were wounded, and 3 had disappeared. A serious gas shortage hit West Beirut while the bombardments continued in both sectors of the capital. 26 While the schools were closed to protest against the situation, a bomb exploded in Dora, killing a mother and her child and wounding seven persons. The conflict between the Lebanese Forces and Damascus reached its paroxysm while the camp war between Amal and the Palestinians clamed more victims. 13 The Muslim leaders agreed with Damascus upon the replacement of militias by regular Lebanese forces. Karameh who was back from Damascus presented the resignation of his government. 16 Georges Saadeh was elected new president of the Phalange Party replacing Dr. Elie Karameh. 20 Two French hostages, Philippe Rochot and Georges Hansen were released. 24 A buffer force from the Lebanese Army deployed around the Palestinian camps. Calm was back for good on June 28. 28 The army and the Internal Security Forces deployed in West Beirut supported by civilian Syrian observers. 3 The Lebanese General Confederation of Workers called for a strike to protest against the increase in prices. 4 200 Commandos of the special Syrian forces helped the Lebanese Army and the Internal Security Forces to maintain security in Beirut. 14 The Israeli aviation launched a raid on Baissour, Aitate, and Chemlane. The target was PSP, PFLP, and DFLP positions; 5 persons died and 11 were injured in the operation. 19 A killing attempt was perpetrated against a bus transporting AUB students and employees from West to East Beirut. Four dead including three students and five wounded including two doctors were reported. This massacre constituted a challenge to the pacification plan. 26 Father Martin Lawrence Jenco, a US Catholic cleric, was released. The Islamic Jihad had kidnapped him in January 1985. 28 A bomb set in a Mercedes car exploded in Ain El Remmaneh killing 31 persons and injuring 128 others. How long will innocents of all religions be paying the price of a war that had lasted for too long? 29 Death hit this time in Barbir. 22 dead and 163 wounded victims were reported. The helplessness of the Lebanese was pitiful. 1 While inviting Syria to pursue its initiative in Lebanon, President Gemayel proposed to open a dialog within the Parliament. 8 After three explosions in Dora, Jal el Dib and Bourj Hammoud, terrorism moved to Tarik Jdideh where a car bomb killed 13 persons and wounded 106 others. 10 Rival factions from the Lebanese Forces fought in the Eastern regions. The previous commander of the Lebanese Forces, Fouad Abounader was injured in Dora. 11 Fights opposed The UNIFL and Amal for 16 hours in Tyr. 14 A car parked next to a hospital in Dora exploded killing 24 persons and wounding 84 others. No words were sufficient anymore to denounce the massacres that spared no one and reduced human beings to a chess pawn on a chess game where the players did not respect any rule and were manipulated by nothing else then hatred. 19 Camille Chamoun, Joseph Hachem and Rachid Karameh met at the Villa Mansour. 2 The first meeting of the Dialog Committee was held at the Beirut racecourse. The ten members of the government met for the first time since November 1985. The Ministers decided to elaborate a new National Pact. 4 The war against Westerners had new targets now. It was the turn of UNIFL soldiers to be aggressed. Three French Blue Helmets were killed in Jouaya in South Lebanon. The UN Security Council called for urgent security measures in favor of the UNIFL. 10 The Islamic Jihad kidnapped Frank Reed, director of the Lebanese International College and Victor Kanho, governor of the Lion's Club in Lebanon and Jordan. 12 Another US national, James Cicippio was kidnapped on the AUB campus, therefore raising the number of Americans kidnapped to 6. 18 While a terrorist vague submerged France, the French military attaché, Christian Goutierre was assassinated in Mar Takla. 25 The UNIFL Blue Helmets repositioned themselves; they occupied three out of the 32 positions they were initially occupying. 27 500 fighters led by Elie Hobeika entered Achrafieh where they fought ferociously with Geagea's men. The Lebanese Forces and the army rebuffed the infiltration. 65 persons lost their lives in the operation while 200 others were wounded. 29 Colonel Khalil Kanaan was assassinated in his home in Hazmieh. A French journalist, Jean-Marc Sroussi, was kidnapped in the Southern suburbs of Beirut. 16 During a raid against Palestinian positions, an Israeli F16 was shot in Saida. One of the two Israeli pilots was captured while Israel saved the second in a helicopter operation. 21 Hussein Husseini was reelected Speaker of the National Assembly. A seventh US national, Edward Tracy was kidnapped in West Beirut. 25 The Camps War opposing Amal to the Palestinians spread to Saida. 30 The Lebanese Pound reached a historical exchange rate record with the dollar. One dollar was equivalent to 52.25 to 53 Lebanese Pounds. 2 An American, David Jacobsen, detained by the Islamic Jihad since the 27th of May 1985, was finally released. 5 The reactivated and broadened Lebanese Front held its first sittings. 10 Two French hostages, Camille Sontag and Marcel Coudari were released. 25 The armed conflict between Amal and the Palestinians spread to Maghdoucheh. Ferocious combats took place in this Christian strategic town. Ultimately, it fell partially in the hands of Palestinians and its residents were forced to flee from their homes. 2 A general strike paralyzed the country. The Lebanese were unable to cope with the increase in prices. The leaders couldn't find any solution to the crisis. The popular discontent was on the rise. 5 Abou Melhem died. The great TV comedian, whose real name was Adib Haddad, became famous for playing, for many years, the character of a villager famous for his common sense. The grandfather of all the Lebanese had disappeared. 13 The Camps Car continued. After ten hours of violent combats, the Chatila camp was 90% destroyed and tens of deaths were reported. 19 Violent combats opposed in Tripoli the Syrian Army to Islamist militiamen. The fights made 12 dead and 35 injuries. The Syrian Army launched an Islamists hunting at the end of which one of the major leaders of the Islamic Unification Movement was arrested. 24 Aurel Cornea, one of the Antenne 2 journalists kidnapped on June 21, was released by the Organization of Revolutionary Justice. 26 The dollar crossed the 80 Lebanese Pounds threshold. It continued its rise to reach the fateful three digit numbers. According to statistics, consumer products had increased by 204% in a year and the Lebanese Pound had depreciated by 365%.
1987 2 The Minister of Labor Selim El Hoss signed a decree raising the minimum wage to 3,200 LBP. This decision was a timid ray of light in the heavy economic sky. 5 While the Camps War raged between Amal and the Popular Palestinian Liberation Front, the Salam mission, aiming at reconciling Presidents Assad and Gemayel, was resumed. 6 The Cassir decrees caused a fast increase in the price of fuel. Starting this day, 20 liters of gas were sold at 190 LBP, while the jar of butane was sold at 100 LBP. 7 President Camille Chamoun escaped by miracle from a killing attempt. A car bomb exploded on the River cornice when his convoy was passing by. 4 persons were killed and 37 others were wounded. The President was injured in his arm. 8 Artillery duels between the two sectors of the capital on one hand and the bombing of the Beirut Airport on the other, raised the tension again. 13 The kidnapping, in West Beirut, of Roger Auque, a French journalist, raised the number of French nationals who disappeared in Lebanon to 18. 18 It was the Germans' turn to be kidnapped. Richard Cordes disappeared right after his arrival at the Beirut Airport. 24 While there were still no news about West German nationals Cordes and Schmidt, three Americans and one Indian holding a US passport were kidnapped at the Beirut University College campus, in Koraytem in Ras Beirut. 28 Assad and Gemayel met for 55 minutes in Kuwait during a pan-Islamic conference to put an end to a disagreement that lasted one year. Besides, Washington decided to prohibit US nationals from travelling to Lebanon. 29 Mounir Abou-Fadel, Vice-Speaker of the National Assembly, died from a heart attack at the American hospital where he was admitted four days earlier. 1 The MEA suspended its flights therefore causing a de facto closing of the Beirut International Airport, while the few companies that were still flying into the airport (Soviet, Czech, and Bulgarian) decided to cancel their flights. 2 The Swiss Embassy was the last embassy to close in West Beirut. 6 The Lebanese Pound recorded a historic decline compared to the dollar which had almost reached the 100 LBP threshold. This fall worried the population. 7 The confrontations intensified around the Palestinian camps of Chatila and Bourj Brajneh. The risk of escalation intensified. 12 While the Lebanese Pound continued to fall, the chief of State Amine Gemayel, arrived in Bruxelles to request a social and economic help from the European countries. 15 A vast military confrontation between Amal and the PSP erupted in West Beirut. It was a prelude to the entrance of 12,000 Syrian soldiers in this region. However, they didn't deploy in the Southern suburbs. 4 After an interruption of three weeks, Lebanese-Syrian negotiations were resumed. 6 A decision that appeared anachronistic in a country dominated by insecurity was taken: motorcycles were prohibited in West Beirut. This decision was motivated by the need to strengthen security in the region. 7 Iran dispatched a new ambassador to Lebanon where he received a triumphal welcome. 14 The Lebanese Force announced an assassination attempt against Samir Geagea. 19 2 persons were killed and 3 others wounded in a criminal explosion early in the afternoon in Zalka. 28 An anti-Syrian assault in Ramlet El Baida constituted the most serious incident since the entry of Syrian troops in West Beirut on February 22nd. 5 An agreement was concluded between the National Palestinian Salvation Front and the Amal movement under the aegis of Ghazi Kanaan. This agreement stipulated a global cease-fire and the end of the camps' blockade in Beirut 8 The Souk El Gharb front flared up while the Syrian army was achieving its deployment around the camps in Beirut. 16 The President of the National Liberal Party, Dany Chamoun announced his candidacy to the 1988 presidential elections. 23 The CGTL announces a 3-days general strike. 4 The Prime Minister Rachid Karameh announced his resignation but refused to give a written resignation to the Head of State 5 Teachers call for a 2-days general strike in order to obtain their wage and professional demands. 8 An Israeli raid on Ain-el Heloueh and Mieh-Mieh Palestinian camps kills 7 persons and wounds 34. 11 After a 3-months interruption, Beirut Airport is open again to the traffic and the MEA flights resume. 18 The Minister of Labour Selim Hoss signs the decree for the reajustment of salaries. The minimum salary is fixed at 4500 LBP. 19 A dilapidated building in Abu-Shaker district in the Mazraa cornice collapses, killing 11 persons. 21 The abrogation by the Parliament of the Cairo Agreement was voted unanimously by the attending 45 deputies. Moreover, the abolition of May 17th Israeli-Arab Agreement was confirmed. 31 The Islamic resistance integrists lead an offensive against the Army of South-Lebanon and the Israeli Army. 1 The Prime Minister Rachid Karameh was assassinated, torn to shreds by the explosion on the helicopter that was supposed to take him from Tripoli to West-Beirut. However, his post as Chief of the Cabinet did not remain vacant: Selim Hoss was designated by presidential decree as the interim Chief of Government. 3 A Syrian delegation led by Abdel-Halim Khaddam, the Syrian Republic's Vice-President attend the national funerals of Karame in Tripoli. 5 The President of the National Assembly, Hussein Husseini, announces his resignation, thus increasing the institutional gap. 17 Walid Joumblatt, leader of the PSP, and Nabih Berri, leader of the Amal militia, become reconciled under the aegis of the Syrian Vice-President Abdel-Halim Khaddam, and publish an agreement for fighting in 7 points. 18 An American journalist, Charles Glass, accompanied by the son of the Minister of Defense Ali Adel Osseirane, are kidnapped in Ouzaï. 19 The price of fuel goes up from 190 LBP to 290 LBP for 20 litres while the gas demijohn goes up from 110 LBP to 155 LBP. The index of livelihood cost has increased by 82,8 % since January. 24 While Ali Adel Osseirane is set free, hope for the quick release of the American journalist fades. 1 The American Ambassador in Lebanon confirms to President Gemayel that the policy of his country towards Lebanon hasn't changed. 2 Lebanon has just lost in Kesrouan, Labaki, one of its best journalists and most fervent defenders. 3 An Israeli raid against a PSNS base in Ammik in the Bekaa injures 13 persons. 6 The high depreciation of the Lebanese Pound breks, in the beginning of the week, all historical drop records and provokes panic on the exchange market. The national currency breaks the plateau of 162 LBP for 1 American Dollar. 11 Walid Joumblatt, Minister of Tourism and Leader of the Progressist Socialist Party, presides this evening, the opening ceremony of the Emir Amin's Palace. Closed down since the first years of the war, this edifice, that used to belong to the Intercontinental chain of hotels, resumes its vocation as a prestigious palace. 17 The Minister of Finance, President Camille Chamoun, publishes a decision ordering the Governor of the Central Bank, Edmond Naïm, not to intervene to stabilize the exchange market before contacting him.. 24 A Lebanese, Ali Mohamad Hariri, hijacks an Air Africa plane in Geneva and demands the release of the hamade brothers held captive in the German Federal Republic. The operation ends with the arrest of the hijacker, killing 1 person and injuring 31. 27 The Israeli attack against the APL (Maarouf Saad's Forces in Saida ) kills 7 persons and wounds 3. 31 The Security Coucil renews the mandate of the FINUL. 2 The President of the Republic's Councillor, Mohamed Choucair, who was a mediator between the Chief of State and the Muslim Opposition, is assassinated in West-Beirut. 7 President Camille Chamoun dies from a heart attack. In a communiqué, The American Department of State emphasizes that 'Camille Chamoun was the most eminent politician in Lebanon'. 9 Lebanon reunites around the national funerals of President Camille Chamoun. 14 The Central Bank decides to grant, exceptionally, credits for 4 million dollars to the EDL (Electricity of Lebanon) and to bakeries. 16 A fire ravages the forest in Naccache and its surroundings destroying in its wake the olive and pine fields. 18 The hostage Charles Glass is set free. When will the other hostages be released? 19 The Interim Finance Minister arbitrates a meeting of explanation between the Association of Banks and the Bank of Lebanon. This meeting results in a freezing of the application of the circular 739 (that forces private banks to block 93% of their deposits by the Central Bank). 20 Holding hands, all dressed in white, hundreds of Lebanese, Christian and Muslim, said no to the war and to the demarcation line that had been parting the country in two for 12 years. 1 President Gemayel arrives in Quebec to request, in front of the Francophony Summit, the creapour demander, the creation of Special Support Funds in Lebanon. 5 The Israeli Airforce conducts a murderous raid on sur Ain el-Heloueh, killing 41 persons and injuring 40. 7 Alfred Schmidt, a West-German hostage, is released. 20 700 PSP combattants PSP and about 100 activists from the Communist Party get ready to go to Lybia in order to fight with the Lybians against the Army of Tchad. 23 As the Minister of Education, Selim Hoss asks universities to organize admission competotion and exams since the Baccalaureat exams couldn't be presented. 24 Father Andre Masse is assassinated close to Saida. He was head of the USJ (Saint-Joseph University) section in South-Lebanon. 4 Fouad Lahoud, deputee of North Metn and President of the Parliamentary Commission of Defense, dies. 6 A wild race starts between the Preliminary Reajustment of Salaries and an obvious inflation. The Lebanese, despite a minimum salary raised to 8.500 LBP, already seem to be paying an increase they haven't perceived yet. 12 The dollar goes up again, which leads to another rising of the price of fuel.. 13 While the price of bread is following the rising of the price of fuel, its price going up to 50 LBP per bread bag, handicaps on crutches and in wheelchairs go from Akkar to Beirut to express their wish to live in peace. 17 Torrential rain provokes catastrophic floods in Baalbeck and Hermel. 24 villages are considered as disaster-stricken zones, and the Temple of Venus is drowned under a thick layer of mud. 19 Teachers call for an open and unlimited strike. 23 During his trip in the Middle-East, Richard Murphy, American Sub-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, transmits to President Gemayel ideas suggested by Damascus to stabilize the situation. 26 The dollar comes close to 500 LBP in Beirut. This staggering drop of the Lebanese Pound finds its explanation in the important drain of capitals out of Lebanon and the decrease of currency transfers into the country. 29 Two French policemen are killed and a third one injured in a murder attempt in Dora. This incident represents a new challenge for France and a hard blow for Lebanon. 5 The CGTL announces an open general strike, followed a few days later by a mass demonstration in Beirut and in other Lebanese regions. 11 The explosion of a suitcase-bomb in Beirut Airport provokes panic amongst the travellers, kills 3 persons and wounds 65. 14 The attempt against the American Hospital is a first in the annals of terrorism. Tjis is the first time hospitals are attacked. It killed 6 ersons and wounded 37. 16 Saida city went through a day of combats and bombing, killing according to a first toll, 6 people and injuring fourty. The confrontation was between Palestinian combatants and the Nasserian Popular Organization's militiamen. 23 President Gemayel, during a trip in Europe, makes a stop in Bonn to ask the German Government for economic help. 27 November seems to end with a sign of hope for the hostages in Lebanon. Jean-Louis Normandin, kidnapped in March 86, and Roger Auque, kidnapped in January 87, are set free. 2 While credits are unblocked to buy fuel and service stations are reopened, Victor Cassir, Minister of Industry and Oil, authorizes private companies to import fuel subject to a previous authorization by the Ministry of Oil. 8 The storm is raging in the country. Floods provoke important damages and kill 5 persons. On the other hand, electric power becomes rare. 28 Charles Malek dies at the age of 82 ans following a long period of illness. The news of the death of the former Council's Vice-President and Minister of Foreign Affairs saddens the political, as well as the academic and intellectual sets. The American President Ronald Reagan addresses an emotional tribute to the memory of the academic, the philosopher and the politician.
1988 3 Murderous Israeli raids on Palestinian and Progressive Socialist Party positions in the region of Saida make kill 21 persons and wound 11. 4 A Progressive Socialist Party member hijacks a Lebanese Army helicopter. This affair triggers a maritime blockade imposed by the Army on the Chouf region. 10 In order to avoid the escalation, Joumblatt surrenders the 'Gazelle' to the Hammana barrack but the major insists on going back to Adma. Two days later, this crisis is forgotten and the maritime blockade is lifted up. 17 A 'Puma' crashes in the sea next to the Bouar coast with its captain Georges Sadaka on board and his co-pilot Jean Azzi. The search for the two bodies was unsuccessful. 20 The camps war, that lasted three years, seems to come close to an end with the deployment of the Syrian army and the Lebanese Army sixth brigade, replacing Amal around Chatila and Bourj-Brajneh. 21 The institute 'Etudes et Consultations Economiques' publishes the results of its annual analysis of the price increase in Beirut. They show an increase of 721% during the year 1987. 25 While hail falls on most of the country causing important damages, police patrols go round bakeries that are reducing the 2 kilos 'rabta' of bread, sold regularly at 65 LBP., to 1700grs. 27 Ralph Schary is kidnapped in West Beirut. Married to Rana Mounla, a Muslim from Tripoli, he is the third West German national who is kidnapped. 29 The fall of the dollar (400 LBP.) on the market (it had reached 430 LBP.) allows the Minister of Industry and Oil to reduce the price of oil from 1400 LBP. to 1200 LBP. and the ton of fuel from 69,200 LBP. to 52,000 LBP. 2 Jacques Merrin, a Frenchman working for the DGSE, is killed by unknown persons in the neighborhood of the Palace of Justice. 3 Winter is tough. A 20 cm snow layer covers Tripoli where it had not snowed since 1947. 4 The emissary of President Amine Gemayel, Elie Salem, meets with the Secretary of State George Schultz in Washington in the presence of the Sub-Secretary for the Middle East Affairs, Richard Murphy. 5 Two Scandinavian employees of the UNRWA are kidnapped. 12 An explosive charge of 880 grs of TNT is found and diffused in the airplane that has to transport President Gemayel to Sanaa. 28 The Lebanese thinker and man of letters Mikhael Neaimeh dies at the age of 98 following a bronchitis. 3 Ralph Schray, The West German national kidnapped on January 27, is released in Beirut and driven to Damascus. 7 The R.F. Semaan Doueihy, Deputy of Zghorta, is killed by violent heart attack at the age of 67. 18 The Ivory Coast decides to close its embassy in Beirut fearing that a negative action against its diplomats could cause repercussions on the Lebanese that live in the Ivory Coast. 31 The first animated cartoons festival in Lebanon is inaugurated at the S.E.P in presence of several personalities as well as cartoonists who came from France. 6 Following combats between Amal and Hezbollah, Nabatiyeh falls in the hands of Amal militiamen. 24 The northern Lebanon capital, Tripoli, is mourning because of a strong explosive charge that killed 66 and injured 26. 27 27,000 public school teachers go on an open strike in order to obtain better medical and social benefits. 30 The body of Bishop Albert Khoreiche was discovered in the forest of Chnaiir, provoking consternation in every milieu. He had disappeared eight days earlier in mysterious conditions. 4 The affair of the three last French hostages has a happy ending. Marcel Fontaine, Marcel Carton and Jean-Paul Kauffman, detained for three years by the Islamic Jihad, are finally released. Michel Seurat, dead one year after he was made captive, wasn't as lucky. 5 Lebanon requests an urgent meeting of the United Nations Security Council following Israeli military operations on its territory. 11 Iran and Syria sponsored a seven-point agreement destined to consolidate the end of combats in the southern suburbs that made, in 6 days, 157 death and 666 injured. The agreement was revised a few days later. 18 A young unemployed man, Antoine Khalife, wins 150 millions LBP. at the Loto. 26 The Generals Ghazi Kanaan and Said Bayraqdar, respectively chief of S.S and Commander of the Syrian Forces in Lebanon, barely escape an attack in Ghobayre. 27 Syrians deploy in the southern suburbs of Beirut. 30 A car bomb explodes in the region of Rmeil, killing 15 and injuring 61. 3 Nabih Berri, leader of the Amal movement, announces the dissolution of his militia in all regions except for Southern Lebanon. 5 2,200 tons of toxic waste were illegally brought in Lebanon and kept on waste grounds in the Kesrouan, after being rejected by Italy, Syria and Venezuela. 7 Eight days after the Rmeil attack, a car bomb explodes in Ouzai, killing 3 and injuring 30. 10 A two hours face-to-face meeting between presidents Gemayel and Assad in Algeria opens a new page in the dialogue between Syria and Lebanon. 27 Chatila falls in the hands of the Palestinian dissidents. 3 Because of simultaneous breakdowns in the Zouk and Jyeh power plants and on the Jyeh-Jamhour network, numerous regions are deprived of electrical power for more than 18 hours. 17 While Beirut suffers powerlessly from the prolonged electricity failure and a tough water rationing, a flame of violence takes place in the North. Combats between the Jaafar and the population of Kobeyate kill 8 eight persons and wound about 30. 1 The habitants of Kobeyate and the Jaafar become reconciled. 4 Richard Murphy arrives unexpectedly in Beirut where he defines to the President of the Republic Washington's position. 9 As the inflation increases, new bills of 500 LBP. and 1000 LBP. are put on the market. 10 For 5 months, 'Samarcande', the novel of Amin Maalouf, the young Lebanese writer (39 years old), who lives in Paris since 1976, is a best seller in France. 16 The former 78 years old Chief of State, Sleiman Frangie, announces officially his candidacy for the presidential elections. 23 The 'Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation' (television of L.F) inaugurates channel 33, first French-speaking private television channel in the Middle East. 8 The deputy of Jezzine, Farid Serhal is kidnapped at a P.S.P. checkpoint in Ouzai and driven to the Bristol Hotel. 12 The Amid of the National Block, Raymond Edde, announces officially his candidacy for the presidential elections. 13 Fire exchanges between units of the Lebanese army and the Lebanese Forces in Sin-el-Fil and Mkalles killed one militiaman and injured another one. 18 Mikhael Daher, deputy from the North, 'was designated' candidate at the presidential elections in accordance with a Syrian-American agreement. This designation did not please everyone. 20 A car bomb explodes in Dora killing 3 and injuring 37 including the outgoing Minister of Information, Joseph Skaff. 22 A few minutes before the expiration of his mandate, President Amine Gemayel named the Maronite commander of the army, general Michel Aoun, Prime Minister of a military government. According to the constitution, the ministers' council takes over the executive power in case of a vacancy of the presidency. However, the three Muslim Ministers withdraw immediately. 23 General Aoun and Selim Hoss were fighting for the international recognition. The country was from now on divided in two regions run respectively in the 'East' by general Aoun and in the 'West' by Selim Hoss. 3 The Indian hostage Singh, resident of the United States and detained for 21 months in Lebanon, is released. 4 The Lebanese Forces announced an agreement on the unification of the forces in the East and took for the first time since 1975 control of the Northern Metn (barracks, offices, military positions), region considered as the fief of the former president Amine Gemayel. 12 The French Minister of Culture and Communication, Jack Lang, decorates the Lebanese singer Feiruz, with the distinguishing mark of the Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters. Acording to Lang, Feiruz is the 'symbol of a country that refuses to die.' 18 The quorum had not been reached at the chamber of deputies, and the country found itself without legislative power and without a president of the Republic since September 23 but endowed with two executive organs. 26 The Israeli airforce hits again in East Saida and in Southern Beirut killing 15 persons and injuring 48. 7 General Antoine Lahd, Chief of the 'Army of Southern Lebanon', escapes an assassination attempt by a communist militant, Souha Bechara. She is arrested. 9 Adel Osseirane names General Sami Khatib, former Chief of the Arab Strike Force, Chief Commander of the Army. 25 West Beirut was the stage of a fresh outbreak of combats between Amal militiamen and the Hezbollah, despite the Syrian army presence. 27 President Takieddine Solh dies in Paris at the age of 80 following a heart attack. 2 General Aoun orders the closure of the Museum-Berbir junction; the passage will be re-opened 17 days later. 7 On the fifth day of a blockade imposed by the closure of the Museum-Berbir junction, the only supply road for fuel and food products, the bank of Lebanon gives up to the pressures and unfreezes credits for the West Beirut sector for direct importation of flour. 13 An agreement takes place between the employers and the General Confederation of Lebanese Workers. The minimum wage is thus increased to 25,000 LBP. 20 Four days after the liberation of the R.C.I.C. Swiss delegate, Peter Winkler, kidnapped in Southern Lebanon on November 17 and released on December 16, the Red Cross International Committee decides to suspend its operations in Lebanon immediately and to repatriate its delegates. 29 Two French little girls (Marie-Laure and Virginie Valente) kidnapped 13 months earlier are delivered by the Libyan authorities to a French government emissary. The year ends in a very tense climate. The Lebanese are wondering about their future.
1989 8 After the fightings in Beirut, the Amal movement and the Hezbollah continue their bloody fightings in the Iqlim-el-Touffah. 10 The extraordinary conference of Arab ministers of Foreign Affairs was held in Tunis without the Lebanese delegation although the conference covered primarily the Lebanese crisis. 12 On the fifth day of a bloody duel, Amal and Hezbollah sink in the Iqlim-el-Touffah. 18 The great Lebanese poet and drama author, Georges Schehade, dies at the age of 81 in his Parisian house. Georges Schehade wrote in French. 20 The chief of the National Liberal Party, Dany Chamoun, met with Walid Joumblatt, chief of the Progressive Socialist Party, in Deir el Kamar. Moreover, Beiteddine was busy organizing the return of the refugees. 30 Following negotiations conducted in Damascus, the pro-Syrian Amal movement and the pro-Iranian Hezbollah sign an agreement putting an end to their armed conflict that cost the life of 400 persons in 10 months. 1 Presidents Hoss, Husseini, and General Aoun did not come up with an agreement in Tunis. 6 After 2 months of interruption, the Red Cross International Committee decides to resume its activities in Lebanon. 9 Anouar Fatayri, high official of the Progressive Socialist Party and his bodyguard Mohammed Saïd Abou Mehdi are assassinated in an ambush at the entry of the Jahlieh village in the Chouf. 10 Confrontations are taking place between the Lebanese Army and the Lebanese Forces in Jdeideh. 14 New confrontations between the army and the L.F. were taking place in Monteverde and next to the Justice Palace in Beirut, which created a general mobilization on both sides. 16 An agreement on military disengagement is concluded between the Army and the L.F., within in a four-party committee. 17 A general Christian assembly is held in Bkerkeh, headquarters of the Maronite patriarch, in order to treat the L.F.-Army litigation. 20 A meeting between General Aoun, Chief Commander of the Army, and Samir Geagea Chief of the L.F., takes place in Baabda. The goal of this meeting is to eliminate the differences between them. 23 The fifth basin of Beirut harbor, controlled by the L.F. is closed and the tax checkpoints of Berbara are dismantled. 24 A permanent political-military committee Army-L.F is formed to insure the normalization in the Eastern regions. 6 Yarzeh reactivated 'The Maritime Operations Room:' instructed to watch the navigation movement in the Lebanese waters and to prevent boats from entering the illegal harbours of the country. Sami Khatib (chief commander of the army in the Western sector) closed the access to the port in retort to what was considered a blockade. 14 Fire exchanges in Souk-el-Gharb had to end up in an explosion. Intensive bombardments of the residential areas, the airport, and the port made 32 deaths and 145 injured. 17 An attack against a bakery in Jal-el-Dib kills 15 and wounds 140. 20 Jounieh and the Museum crossroads are bombarded. 21 All crossing roads are closed and a blockade is imposed against the East regions. 30 Hit by a shell, a butane reservoir explodes in Dora resulting in 66 injured and considerable damages. 4 During a moving ceremony in the Lebanese embassy in Paris, 862 French apply for the Lebanese nationality. 5 Jean-Franois Deniau, emissary of the Quai d'Orsay, arrives in Beirut. He has to meet with General Aoun and President Hoss. 11 The French Secretary of State to the Human Action, Bernard Kouchner, arrives in Beirut in order to prepare and explain the arrival of the hospital ship 'La Rance' and the oil tanker 'Penhors'. 16 The Spanish Ambassador in Lebanon, Don Pedro Manuel de Aristegui, dies in his Hadeth residence hit by a 240 mm shell. His father in law, the great Lebanese writer Toufic Aouad, as well as his sister in law are among the victims. 24 The French oil tanker 'Penhors' discharges 4700 tons of fuel at the power plant of Zouk. This unloading allows the redistribution of power at the rate of 2 hours a day. 27 The Arab ministers meeting in Tunis wish to see a cease-fire and a deployment of Arab observers. 3 Lakhdar Ibrahimi, General Secretary of the Arab League, arrives in Beirut looking to find a diplomatic solution to the crisis. 12 For the first time since about a month, a new ship accosts in the Jounieh port to embark and disembark passengers. It is a hovercraft. 16 The Mufti of the Republic, Sheikh Hassan Khaled was killed during an attack that killed 10 and injured 76 in Ayche Bakkar, in West Beirut. 12 The EEC gives its full support to the committee composed by the three Chiefs of State (Algerian, Saudi Arabian, and Moroccan) constituted during the Casablanca Summit in order to find a solution to the Lebanese crisis. 15 Electricity, fuel, and flour are the daily preoccupation of Lebanese. Once again, the power plant of Zouk announces that it cannot supply power more than 2 hours a day. 26 A new fuel rationing system, based on coupons, is enforced in the Eastern regions. 30 The pounding of Achrafieh continues and causes a large number of victims. 5 In a joint declaration from Paris, Presidents Mitterand and Gorbatchev call for an immediate cease-fire. 18 The Delegate Minister in charge of Francophony, Alain Decaux, arrives in Beirut and meets with General Aoun, Maronite Patriarch Sfeir, Walid Joumblatt as well as many other diplomats. 6 2000 angry demonstrators have besieged the American Embassy. Twenty-four hours later, 30 American diplomats, including the Ambassador John Mc Carthy, leave Lebanon. 15 The UN delivers a 200,000 dollars check to the human organization 'Save the Children' in favor of war victims in Lebanon. 21 The Sunnite Deputy of the West Bekaa and former Minister, Nazem Kadri (74 years old), is killed in Verdun. 22 A cease-fire was officially observed while general Aoun answered favorably to the Arab peace proposals. 24 Crossing roads are finally opened and the flights at the International Beirut Airport resume. Even the maritime blockade against the Eastern regions is lifted. 27 Lakhdar Ibrahimi announces that the parliamentary meeting will take place in Taef (in Saudi Arabia) on September 30th. 5 October 5, 6, 7, 8
Not much is happening in Taef where efforts are being deployed in order to come up with a consensus on the national agreement document.
9 Time to go back to school after a long interruption. It is in fact a continuation of the annual program because the 88/89 program has not been achieved. 15 October 15, 16, 17, 18
In Taef, an agreement on the reforms was practically reached after few days of uncertainty. The only subject that had not been brought up was the withdrawal of the Syrian troops from the Lebanese territories.
22 58 deputies approve the final text of the compromise rejected by General Aoun. 24 While the Arab Troïka rushes the Chamber to elect a President before November 7th, tens of thousands of Lebanese say 'no' to the Taef agreement through a giant demonstration that goes from Hazmieh to Baabda.
1 The five permanent members of the Security Council are in favor of the Taef agreement. 4 At the last minute, the deputies decided not to return to Lebanon to meet with general Aoun. At 5 o'clock in the morning, Aoun decided to dissolve the Chamber and asked the members of parliament to adjourn their vote. 5 The 'dissolved' National Assembly met at the military base of Kleyate and elected Rene Moawad new President of the Republic. Angry demonstrators invaded the patriarchal office of Bkerke. The Patriarch took refuge in Dimane. He came back later at the request of General Aoun. 8 A car bomb explodes on Abou Taleb Street in Hamra one hour before the arrival of President Moawad to West Beirut. 17 While Selim Hoss is asked to form the new government, retaliations take place against some deputies from Eastern regions. 22 As soon as the ceremonies celebrating Independence Day ended, and after President Moawad left the Governmental Serail in Sanyeh, his car was destroyed by an important load of explosives. 24 Elias Hraoui is elected President of the Republic by an Assembly reunited at the Chtaura Park Hotel, on the eve of the National Funerals of the defunct President. 26 The government created by Selim Hoss gets the Parliament's confidence. 28 Several reports mentionned important Syrian movements towards the Eastern fronts. In response to General Aoun's call, thousands of Lebanese went to Baabda and watched the Palace day and night. 29 November 29, 30
French opposition deputies go to Baabda to express their solidarity.
4 Violent combats between Amal and the Hezbollah in the West of the Bekaa end with the expulsion of Amal from the villages in the region. 10 After being shut down for two weeks, schools and universities open again in the Eastern regions. 18 Over 300,000 persons participate in the 'flag walk' in the courtyard of the Presidential Palace in Baabda. 24 The two hours meeting between General Aoun and Samir Geagea seem to have pacified their relations.
1990 3 General Michel Aoun admits the existence, in France, of a bank account in his name, with the amount of 15 million dollars. However, he explains that this money is only used for the defense of his country. 5 After having spent 43 days in the military casern of Ablah, President Elias Hraoui leaves the Bekaa and settles in Ramlet-el-Beida. The photographer of L'Orient-Le Jour and the Nahar, Georges Semerdjian dies while on the field. 31 Fights opposing the Lebanese Forces and General Aoun’s army were reported and deprived certain regions of electricity, phone, and water. 3 February 3, 4
The army takes control of Dbayeh after a tough battle.
9 New dividing lines appeared in the Eastern region and the medias war raged. Hospitals suffered from a serious penury and the Lebanese continued to flee by thousands. That week, 417 were killed and 1,655 wounded. 11 The Kesrouan was now at the center of the Aoun-Geagea conflict. Despite all mediations and attempts to maintain the precarious truce, belligerents were fighting on the new front of Daraya, separating the Metn and the Kesrouan. 15 Despite Mgr Sfeir's pathetic call, a blaze of fire hits the 'Christian country'. The army takes control of Ain el Remmaneh. 17 The Army evacuates 400 soldiers from the Adma base, surrounded for over two weeks. The evacuation takes place with the assistance of the Lebanese Red Cross. 25 The Baroness, a civilian ship transporting passengers from Cyprus to the Eastern regions, is attacked resulting in 1 death and 25 injured. The attackers remain unidentified and the liaison between Jounieh and Larnaca is temporarily interrupted.
2 The Maronite Patriarch threatens to excommunicate Aoun and Geagea, as well as those how obey them, if they continue their fightings. The threat will remain vain despite its reiteration. 14 Six weeks of inter-Christian fightings cost Lebanon over a third of its annual GNP and continue to paralyze the country's industrial heart. 20 The parliament meets for the first time since 1975, Place de l'Etoile, in a downtown abandoned and devastated by war. 28 Pastor William Robinson who was accused of planning the implantation of a Jewish colony and who was expelled from Lebanon, is killed on the bordering band in the South of Lebanon. 30 The battle on the ground starts again with violence and reaches, besides regions of the Kesrouan, Achrafieh's neighborhoods. 1 Deputies who have left the country return on request of Hussein Husseini, Chief of the Parliament. 3 The chief of the Lebanese Forces, Samir Geagea, joins President Hraoui, while General Michel Aoun turns to the Arab Troika. At the same time, the N.L.P. withdraws from the commandment of the Lebanese Forces. 10 Jacqueline Valente, her companion and her daughter who were held hostages are released. The new Lebanese Front is created. 18 A bus crossing the Museum passage with teachers and students onboard was shot at. The eleven passengers including the two students were burned alive. 23 While the blockade war rages between the Lebanese Army and the Lebanese Forces, the President of the Republic declines Geagea's offer to surrender to him the barracks of Jbeil and the Kesrouan. 1 After having been stable around 500 LBP., the Dollar goes over 600 LBP. 8 General Aoun decides to close all the roads communicating with the regions controlled by the Lebanese Forces while the battle continues to rage. 1 Lakhdar Ibrahimi is again in Beirut to launch a series of intensive dialogues. 3 A peaceful walk on the road of Nahr el Kalb, grouping religious personalities ends dramatically. Pierre Chbat, the L.B.C's cameraman, is killed. 12 Patriarch Sfeir, accompanied by Mgr Puente, visit President Hraoui. This visit is the first one since the election of the former. 15 Lakhdar Ibrahimi met, for the first time since the Taef agreement, with General Michel Aoun, after having conferred with Presidents Hraoui, Husseini and Hoss. Later on, he met with the chief of the Lebanese Forces, Samir Geagea. 16 The Stone Roses, a rock group, announce their arrival shortly to Beirut for a concert. 18 An investigation reveals that an international arms trade has taken place between Lebanon and France, through policemen stationed at the French Embassy in Lebanon. 27 Five cases of cholera were reported. 1 The President of the National Block Executive Committee, Nouhad Boueiz, dies. 21 The second Lebanese Republic was born and the National Assembly approved with a majority of 48 deputies the constitutional reforms included in the Taef agreement. However, General Aoun continued to contest the legality of the Chamber. 26 A reajustment of wages of 40% is decided in the bank sector. 27 The economic crisis is in full swing and the dollar continues its rise. It will reach 1.000 LBP. soon. 6 7 deaths due to cholera are reported in Northern Lebanon. 27 The blockade against the Eastern region gets tougher and tougher. The goal is proclaimed: force General Aoun to give up before schools reopen. 1 A pacific demonstration in favor of General Aoun on the bridge of Nahr-el-Mot, ends by a slaughter: 12 deaths and 50 wounded. 11 Last minute efforts were deployed to avoid a military operation against Baabda and the Eastern regions controlled by General Aoun. Besides, a two kilometers long peace walk on the Kfarchima-Choueifat road grouped 1,000 persons protesting against the blockade. 13 A quick operation following a bombardment by the Syrian aviation permitted to the Lebanese army loyal to the Hoss government to take control of the Baabda palace and Yarze. General Aoun capitulated to avoid bloody fights and took refuge at the French embassy. Fights, according to some estimates, cause 700 deaths. 15 President Mitterand affirms the he will not hand over General Aoun, arguing that 'It is a question of honor'. 19 While Hraoui and Assad examine the developments following Aoun's departure, the Lebanese Army takes in charge the positions of Amal and Hezbollah in Chiyah. 21 The leader of the National Liberal Party, Dany Chamoun, his wife Ingrid and his two kids Tarek and Julian were savagely assassinated in there home in Baabda. 25 The Lebanese Army starts to clear the Nahr-el-Kalb tunnel. 5 The Damascus agreement between the Hezbollah and Amal is a copy of the one agreed upon on January 30th 1989. The cease-fire takes effect in the Iqlim-el-Touffah. 11 Amal, the P.S.P., and the Hizbollah evacuated their militiamen from the capital. This evacuation was part of the 'Great Beirut' project, aiming at the reunification and disarmament of the capital. As for the Lebanese Forces, they had to leave Achrafieh on November 19 at the latest. 15 The electric power is redistributed progressively in various Lebanese regions. 28 After 15 months of absence, the US Embassy reopens in Aoukar and the new Ambassador in Beirut, Ryan Crocker, starts his mission initiating a come-back of the American diplomacy on the Lebanese scene. 3 The Lebanese Forces achieve the evacuation of their heavy armaments. Great Beirut has become a reality. 5 The Lebanese Army controls the port of Beirut and the 5th dock is closed to the maritime traffic. 10 The Fouad Chehab avenue, known under the name of the ring, was finally reopened to the circulation in both directions. This passage, closed since 1984, was completely cleaned up and free of mines. 13 After a small rise of the Lebanese Pound, the dollar catches up and reaches 800 LBP. 19 President Hoss resigns and Omar Karame is designated Prime Minster. His task is to put together a New Government of National Union. 24 The Karame Government is composed of 30 Ministers including 9 Ministers of State, but the Lebanese Forces and the Kataeb refuse to be part of it.